Choosing to eat tomatoes not only reduces a man’s risk of developing prostate cancer, but also shrinks the existing tumors, claims a new Italian study. Researchers theorize that the secret may lie in lycopene, the powerful anti-oxidant that makes tomatoes red. Lycopene helps neutralize harmful free radicals that are implicated in various kinds of cancer, cardiovascular problems, macular degeneration and other age-related illnesses. However, the benefit was strongest for prostate cancer.
In a bid to assess the prostate cancer-fighting properties of tomatoes, the researchers at the University of Naples conducted an experiment on rodents. For the purpose of the study, the researchers fed laboratory rats implanted with prostate cancer cells, with either a normal diet or that containing 10 percent tomato powder. The tomato powders were made from whole foods so the effects of eating the entire vegetable could be assessed as a nutritional supplement. The investigators noted that the animals fed on tomato powder exhibited slow progression of the disease and also had lower rates of prostate cancer. In contrast, those fed on a normal diet displayed no such benefits.
Joanna Owens, from Cancer Research Britain disagrees stated, “This study doesn’t provide enough evidence that tomatoes can reduce the risk of prostate cancer or prevent progression of the disease in humans. “Other risks such as age, family history and ethnicity are likely to play a much greater role than diet alone.” The study has been published in the journal ‘Cancer Prevention Research.’
Researchers at Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, wanted to know how the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) would be affected in a population of older people who regularly ate fish and seafood, since some varieties are good sources of omega-3 fatty acids. A diet rich in omega-3s probably protects against advanced AMD, the leading cause of blindness in whites in the United States, according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) and other recent studies. High concentrations of omega-3s have been found in the eye's retina, and evidence is mounting that the nutrient may be essential to eye health. The new research, led by Sheila K. West, PhD, was part of the Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) study.
Food intake information with details on fish and shellfish consumed was collected over one year using a validated questionnaire for 2,391 participants aged 65 to 84 years who lived along Maryland's Eastern Shore. After dietary assessment was complete, participants were evaluated for AMD. Those with no AMD were classified as controls (1,942 persons), 227 had early AMD, 153 had intermediate-stage disease, and 68 had advanced AMD. In the advanced AMD group, the macular area of the retina exhibited either neovascularization (abnormal blood vessel growth and bleeding) or a condition called geographic atrophy. Both conditions can result in blindness or severe vision loss.
“Our study corroborates earlier findings that eating omega-3-rich fish and shellfish may protect against advanced AMD.” Dr. West said. “While participants in all groups, including controls, averaged at least one serving of fish or shellfish per week, those who had advanced AMD were significantly less likely to consume high omega-3 fish and seafood,” she said.
The study also looked at whether dietary zinc from crab and oyster consumption impacted advanced AMD risk, but no significant relationship was found. Zinc is also considered protective against AMD and is included in an AMD-vitamin/nutrient supplement developed from the AREDS study. Dr. West speculated that her study found no effect because the levels of zinc obtained from seafood/fish were low compared to supplement levels.
The research is published in the December issue of Ophthalmology, the journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Supplementing diet with whey-based protein may help reduce high blood pressure, a U.S. researcher says.
Nutritional biochemist Susan Fluegel of Washington State University in Spokane says daily doses of commonly available whey brought a more than 6-point reduction in the average blood pressure of men and women with elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Whey is a by-product of cheese-making. “One of the things I like about this is it is low-cost,” Fluegel says in a statement. “Not only that, whey protein has not been shown to be harmful in any way.”
The study, published in International Dairy Journal, finds not everyone drinking the whey-supplemented drink has changes in blood pressure.
The supplement did not lower the blood pressure of subjects who did not have elevated pressure to begin with. That's good, says Fluegel, since low blood pressure can also be a problem. However, blood-pressure reductions — as seen in those with elevated pressure in this study — can bring a 35 percent to 40 percent reduction in fatal strokes, says Fluegel.
Fluegel and colleagues looked at 71 student subjects ages 18-26, but Fluegel says older people with blood pressure issues would likely get similar results. The supplement was delivered in fruit-flavored drinks developed at the university's creamery.
Some people may be at risk of not getting enough vitamin D because they don’t get enough in their diet or because they have more limited sun exposure which reduces the amount of vitamin D their bodies make. Those at risk include:
Breastfed infants require 400 IU vitamin D per day from birth. Because breast milk is naturally low in vitamin D and infants are not usually exposed to the sun, a vitamin D supplement of 400 IU is recommended. Healthy term infants fed infant formula do not require a vitamin D supplement as it is already added to the formula.
- Pregnant women should consume vitamin D from food (for example, from a least 3 glasses of milk der day) or supplements (usually 200-400 IU is provided in a supplement) to ensure the baby is born with optimal vitamin D in their body. If a supplement is taken, be sure not to exceed 2000 IU vitamin D per day.
- Adults over 50 years may not prodce vitamin D in skin as well as when they were younger. It is recommended that adults (men and women) over 50 years take a supplement of 400 IU / day.
- People with skin darkly pigmented with melanin are less able to make vitamin D from exposure to sunlight. Since many people with darker skin colour also avoid vitamin D fortified milk due to lactose intolerance, their dietary intake of the vitamin may be low, so extra vitamin D, such as the amount typically found in a general multivitamin-mineral supplement (200-400 IU) would be a good idea.
- People with limited sun exposure sun exposure is limited due to mostly living or working indoors, wearing clothing such as long robes and head coverings, then it is wise to carefully choose vitamin D rich foods (see above) or to take a vitamin D supplement, such as the amount typically found in a general multivitamin-mineral supplement (200-400 IU).
Some medical conditions such as Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, surgical removal of part of the stomach or intestines, and some forms of liver disease, interfere with absorption of vitamin D. Being overweight and obese causes fat to stay stored in fat tissues and not be released into the blood, preventing vitamin D from being available to the body. If you have one of these conditions, check with your doctor to ask if a vitamin D supplement is needed.
Can I take too much vitamin D?
Yes. Too much vitamin D can be harmful. The total daily intake from food and supplements combined should not exceed 1000 IU for infants and young children and 2000 IU for adults.
The Bottom Line
Most people, except those in the risk groups noted above, can get enough vitamin D if they eat enough vitamin D rich foods (for example, milk, vitamin D fortified foods and some fatty fish) and if they engage in safe sun practices. If you are concerned about your vitamin D status, discuss the issue with Nastaran.
Source: Dietitians of Canada. Reproduced with Permission. Note: The Australian adequate intake is 200 IU however Nastaran recommends 400 IU as per the Canadian recommended intake.
Reduced mobility can result in overweight or obesity, because you are using fewer calories. Some medications, like steroids and antidepressants can also cause weight gain.
Being underweight and having poor nutrition can be caused by
– reduced mobility and feeling tired, which can make shopping, cooking and eating difficult
– difficulty getting food or drinks to the mouth
– poor appetite, and
– difficulty swallowing.
If you are having any of these symptoms and they are keeping you from eating, discuss your symptoms with your doctor.
When you have MS, it is especially important to get the recommended amounts (the Dietary Reference Intakes, or DRIs) of the following vitamins and minerals. If your doctor has diagnosed that you are deficient in any of these, you may be advised to take more. Do not take amounts higher than what is recommended because this can be harmful.
– Calcium and vitamin D. People with MS have a higher risk of low bone mineral density and breaking bones. This may be due to low vitamin D and calcium in the diet, or other factors such reduced physical activity, such as walking. Good food sources of calcium include dairy products (milk, yogurt and cheese), fortified soy and rice beverages, fortified juices, tofu with added calcium and canned fish with the bones. Good food sources of vitamin D include milk, fortified soy and rice beverages, fortified juices, fatty fish, such as salmon, and eggs. If you do not eat these foods daily, you should discuss adding a daily supplement with your doctor or dietitian.
– Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people with MS. Low levels of vitamin B12 can cause a type of anemia that can make you feel tired. Good food sources of vitamin B12 are dairy products (milk, yogurt and cheese), eggs, meat, fish, poultry, and fortified soy and rice beverages. It is recommended that people over 50 take a vitamin B12 supplement, because as you get older, you don't absorb the vitamin B12 from food very well. The amount of vitamin B12 in a multivitamin is usually enough.
– Zinc and selenium. Zinc and selenium deficiencies are common in people with MS. Zinc is needed for the growth and repair of body cells. Selenium works as an antioxidant to protect body cells from damage. Good food sources of zinc are meat, seafood, dried beans, peas, and lentils, and whole grains. Good food sources of selenium are Brazil nuts, seafood, fish and shellfish, liver and kidney. If these are foods that you don't eat regularly, you may need a supplement. The amounts in a multivitamin mineral supplement are usually enough.
Many people with MS try different herbal or nutritional supplements hoping these will improve their symptoms or prevent MS from getting worse. Ginkgo biloba has been studied in people with MS, and while early studies show some benefit, larger studies need to be done before it can be recommended. Gingko biloba has many side effects and shouldn't be taken by people who have bleeding disorders, who are taking blood thinning medication, or who are planning surgery.
Other supplements, including St. John's wort, ginseng, echinacea and valerian, have not been studied in people with MS, so it is not known if they are effective or safe. Because echinacea can stimulate the immune system, it might make MS symptoms worse.
Source: Dietitians of Canada. Reproduced with Permission.