Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients who consume a diet high in vegetables rather than meat may prevent the accumulation of toxic phosphorus levels, according to a study published online Dec. 23 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.Sharon M. Moe, M.D., of the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis, and colleagues conducted a crossover trial in nine patients with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 32 ml/min to compare vegetarian and meat diets containing equivalent nutrients prepared by clinical research staff.
The investigators found that one week of a vegetarian diet led to lower serum phosphorus levels, decreased phosphorus excretion in the urine, and reduced fibroblast growth factor-23 levels compared with a meat diet, despite equivalent protein and phosphorus concentrations in the two diets.
“In summary, this study demonstrates that the source of protein has a significant effect on phosphorus homeostasis in patients with CKD. Therefore, dietary counseling of patients with CKD must include information on not only the amount of phosphate but also the source of protein from which the phosphate derives,” the authors write.
Organophosphate pesticides act by disrupting neurotransmitters, particularly acetylcholine, which plays an important role in sustaining attention and short-term memory.
“Given that these compounds are designed to attack the nervous system of organisms, there is reason to be cautious, especially in situations where exposure may coincide with critical periods of fetal and child development,” said he study's lead author Amy Marks.
Earlier this year, a different study by researchers at Harvard University associated greater exposure to organophosphate pesticides in school aged children with higher rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms.
“These studies provide a growing body of evidence that organophosphate pesticide exposure can impact human neurodevelopment, particularly among children. We were especially interested in prenatal exposure because that is the period when a baby's nervous system is developing the most,” said Eskenazi.
More than 300 children were tested and the researchers were continuing to follow the children as they get older and expect to present more results in the years to come. The current findings were published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.
Source: New York Post
All had reported on their diet at the beginning of the study. During follow-up, about 2,358 died.
The top calcium consumers had a 25 percent lower risk of dying from any cause and a 23 percent lower risk of dying from heart disease during follow-up relative to men that had the least amount of calcium in their diet. Calcium intake didn't significantly influence the risk of dying from cancer.
Men in the top third based on their calcium intake were getting nearly 2,000 milligrams a day, on average, compared to about 1,000 milligrams for men in the bottom third. The US Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for calcium intake is 1,000 milligrams for men 19 to 50 years old and 1,200 milligrams for men 50 and over. “Intake of calcium above that recommended daily may reduce all-cause mortality,” Kaluza and her colleagues conclude.
Calcium could influence mortality risk in many ways, they note, for example by reducing blood pressure, cholesterol, or blood sugar levels. For the men in the study, the main sources of calcium in the diet were milk and milk products and cereal products. In contrast to calcium, there was no relationship between magnesium consumption and overall mortality or deaths from cancer or heart disease. Study participants' intakes ranged from around 400 milligrams per day to around 525 milligrams; the RDA for magnesium is 420 milligrams for men 31 and older.
This analysis, the researchers say, may have found no effect for magnesium because all of the men in the study seemed to be getting enough of the mineral in their diet. “Further studies are needed in other populations with lower dietary magnesium intakes to address this issue,” they say. Future research should also look into calcium and magnesium intake from drinking water, they add, which can be a significant source of these minerals.
SOURCE: American Journal of Epidemiology