The more time adolescent girls spend in front of Facebook, the more their chances of developing a negative body image and various eating disorders, such as anorexia, bulimia and exaggerated dieting. This has been shown in a new study from the University of Haifa.
Eating disorders include a wide spectrum of abnormal mental and behavioral conducts related to food and body weight, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. This study, conducted by Prof. Yael Latzer, Prof. Ruth Katz and Zohar Spivak of the Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences at the University of Haifa, set out to examine the effects of two factors on the development of eating disorders in young girls: exposure to the media and self-empowerment.
A group of 248 girls aged 12-19 (average age: 14.8) took part in the survey. These girls were asked to provide information on their Internet and television viewing habits. Regarding the latter, they were asked to give the number of popular shows related to extreme standards of physical image (the “Barbie” model) that they watched. The girls also filled out questionnaires that examined their approach to slimming, bulimia, physical satisfaction or dissatisfaction, their general outlook on eating, and their sense of personal empowerment.
The results showed that the more time girls spend on Facebook, the more they suffered conditions of bulimia, anorexia, physical dissatisfaction, negative physical self-image, negative approach to eating and more of an urge to be on a weight-loss diet. Extensive online exposure to fashion and music content showed similar tendencies, but manifested in fewer types of eating disorders. As such, the more the exposure to fashion content on the Internet, the higher a girl’s chances of developing anorexia. A similar direct link was found between viewing gossip- and leisure-related television programs (the likes of “Gossip Girl”) and eating disorders in adolescent girls. The study also revealed that the level of personal empowerment in these girls is negatively linked to eating disorders, such that the higher the level of empowerment, the more positive the physical self-image and the lower the chances of developing an eating disorder.
In this study, exposure to the media and the consequential sense of personal empowerment was found to be associated to parenting practices. Girls whose parents were involved in their media usage; who knew what they were viewing and reading and where they were surfing on the web; who watched, surfed or read along with them; and who conducted cooperative and critical discussions with their daughters about the content of their surfing habits, showed more personal empowerment, forming a protective shield against eating disorders.
On the other hand, parents who were not involved in their media exposure, were not aware of the content that their daughters were consuming, and instead of sharing and becoming familiar with that content chose to limit or prohibit exposure, led to lower self-empowerment in their daughters. This, in turn, has a positive link to various eating problems and negative body image.
“Significant potential for future research and application of eating disorder prevention lies in an understanding of how parenting decisions can have effect on an adolescent girl’s sense of empowerment and that enforcing a girl’s sense of empowerment is a means to strengthening body image. This study has shown that a parent has potential ability to prevent dangerous behavioral disorders and negative eating behavior in particular,” the researchers stated.
Recent studies show that grapefruit and diabetes may share a close link. Researchers concluded that naringenin found in grapefruit may increase the body's sensitivity to insulin. This research was conducted only in the laboratory, and further studies are still needed. Grapefruit and diabetes may share a close link given some recent studies suggesting that eating of the fruit can help in controlling the disease. One recent report suggests that grapefruit may become an effective part of the treatment for type 2 diabetes as it contains the antioxidant Naringenin that can break down fats and increase a person's sensitivity to insulin.
The study also concluded that grapefruit is also capable of treating abnormal levels of cholesterol, warding off metabolic syndrome and improving a person's tolerance to glucose, factors that are all associated with diabetes. The study was conducted by scientists from the Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Engineering in Medicine and Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Although more research needs to be completed, grapefruit is a safe source of vitamins for diabetics. One-half of a grapefruit contains 52 calories and 13g of carbohydrates, and the fruit has a low rating on the glycemic index, indicating a lower propensity to drive up blood sugar levels.
The antioxidant Naringenin is found in grapefruit and has been largely credited for its ability in heping to treat type 2 diabetes. Naringenin is specifically noted for being able to break down fatty acids in the liver, similar to what happens when a person undergoes fasting. Yaakov Nahmias, PhD of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem reports that the results of their study indicate that Naringenin antioxidant was found to be capable of breaking down fatty acids similar to those induced by significant amounts of fasting. It does so by activating nuclear receptors, a family of proteins that can cause the liver to break down fatty acids instead of storing them.
Another study conducted by researchers at the University of Western Ontario showed that Naringenin can correct increases in triglyceride and cholesterol levels, while resisting insulin resistance and normalizing glucose metabolism. The said study showed that Naringenin genetically reprograms the liver to burn up more excess fat, instead of storing it. The said study also showed that Naringenin is able to suppress appetite and decrease food intake, which are common strategies in controlling diabetes.
The study of MGH and Hebrew University scientists also noted that Naringenin can lower bad cholesterol called vLDL while able to cure several symptoms of type 2 diabetes.
Research on grapefruit and diabetes, however, has not yet been conducted on humans, and were only done in the laboratory on the liver cells of humans and rats. Until further studies are done to confirm the effects of grapefruit in the treatment of diabetes type 2 in humans, it is still not safe to conclude that the naringenin in grapefruits can indeed cure diabetes. Further studies are still needed to establish its efficacy as well as its overall effects in the body, including the negative effects it might have.
Thus, many health experts do not encourage patients with diabetes to increase their consumption of grapefruits or increase grape juice intake, especially if they are also taking medications. There are patients prescribed with some type of drugs to lower their cholesterol level who are advised not to drink grapefruit juice as it can increase risk of side effects.
Beetroot juice, a source of high nitrate levels, may help prevent high blood pressure, according to a study published in Hypertension. Nitrate is a compound that increases the amount of gas nitric oxide that circulates through the blood.In an effort to determine if beetroot juice contains enough nitrate to lower blood pressure, researchers had two groups of individuals either drink the juice or take nitrate capsules.
The results of the study showed that within 24 hours, the supplements and the juice had lowered the blood pressure of people in both groups. Furthermore, the investigators discovered that about 250 mL of beetroot juice was all that was needed to have the same effects on one's blood pressure as the nitrate capsules.
These findings showed that “beetroot and nitrate capsules are equally effective in lowering blood pressure, indicating that it is the nitrate content of beetroot juice that underlies its potential to reduce blood pressure,” said Amrita Ahluwalia, lead researcher of the study.
The study, to be published in the journal Pain, found that particular areas of the brain were less active as meditators anticipated pain, as induced by a laser device. Those with longer meditation experience (up to 35 years) showed the least anticipation of the laser pain.
Dr Brown, who is based in the University's School of Translational Medicine, found that people who meditate also showed unusual activity during anticipation of pain in part of the prefrontal cortex, a brain region known to be involved in controlling attention and thought processes when potential threats are perceived.
He said: “The results of the study confirm how we suspected meditation might affect the brain. Meditation trains the brain to be more present-focused and therefore to spend less time anticipating future negative events. This may be why meditation is effective at reducing the recurrence of depression, which makes chronic pain considerably worse.”
Dr Brown said the findings should encourage further research into how the brain is changed by meditation practice. He said: “Although we found that meditators anticipate pain less and find pain less unpleasant, it's not clear precisely how meditation changes brain function over time to produce these effects.
“However, the importance of developing new treatments for chronic pain is clear: 40% of people who suffer from chronic pain report inadequate management of their pain problem.”
In the UK, more than 10 million adults consult their GP each year with arthritis and related conditions. The estimated annual direct cost of these conditions to health and social services is £5.7 billion.
Study co-author Professor Anthony Jones said: “One might argue that if a therapy works, then why should we care how it works? But it may be surprising to learn that the mechanisms of action of many current therapies are largely unknown, a fact that hinders the development of new treatments. Understanding how meditation works would help improve this method of treatment and help in the development of new therapies.
“There may also be some types of patient with chronic pain who benefit more from meditation-based therapies than others. If we can find out the mechanism of action of meditation for reducing pain, we may be able to screen patients in the future for deficiencies in that mechanism, allowing us to target the treatment to those people.
People with mild cognitive impairment can be affected by a reduction in their ability to think, such as reduced memory and a short attention span.
“We wanted to find out whether highly educated patients with mild cognitive impairment differed in terms of tolerance of the disease from patients with intermediate and low levels of education,” says Rolstad.
By analysing the patients' spinal fluid, the researchers were able to examine whether there were signs of dementia in the brain.
“Highly educated patients with mild cognitive impairment who went on to develop dementia over the next two years had more signs of disease in their spinal fluid than those with intermediate and low levels of education,” says Rolstad.
Despite having more disease in the brain, the highly educated patients showed the same symptoms of the disease as their less well educated counterparts. This means that patients with higher levels of education tolerate more disease in the brain.
The researchers also studied patients with mild cognitive impairment who did not go on to develop dementia over the next two years.
“We found that the highly educated patients who did not develop dementia during the course of the study showed signs of better nerve function than those with lower levels of education,” says Rolstad. “This finding means that the highly educated not only tolerate more disease in the brain but also sustain less nerve damage during the early stages of the disease.”
The results indicate that a higher reserve capacity delays the symptoms of dementia and the progress of the disease. This can help the care sector to be more aware of dementia in highly educated patients, and thus increase the chances of the correct treatment being given.