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Almonds ward off diabetes, says study

Eating almonds could help prevent diabetes and heart disease, according to a study.

The research found incorporating the nuts into our diets may help treat type 2 diabetes, which accounts for 90 to 95 per cent of all cases.

As well as combating the condition, linked to obesity and physical inactivity, it could tackle cardiovascular disease, the report published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition said.

Diabetes is one of the fastest growing diseases in the world, and sufferers have a shortage of insulin or a decreased ability to use the hormone that allows glucose (sugar) to enter cells and be converted to energy.

When diabetes is not controlled, glucose and fats remain in the blood and over time, damage vital organs.

The study found consuming a diet rich in almonds may help improve insulin sensitivity and decrease LDL-cholesterol levels in those with pre-diabetes, a condition in which people have blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.

Researchers looked at the effects of consuming an almond-enriched diet on 65 adults with pre-diabetes (48 women and 17 men) with an average age in the mid-50s.

The participants were split up, and the group on the almond-enriched diet showed greater improvements in insulin sensitivity and clinically significant reductions in LDL-cholesterol compared with the nut-free group.

Dr Michelle Wien, assistant research professor in nutrition at Loma Linda University's School of Public Health, said, “We have made great strides in chronic disease research from evidence of effective treatment to evidence of effective prevention.”

The principal researcher for the study, conducted at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, added, “It is promising for those with risk factors for chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, that dietary changes may help to improve factors that play a potential role in the disease development.”

An estimated 55 million people in Europe have been diagnosed with diabetes, and the figure is expected to rise to 66 million by 2030.

There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes, which may be autoimmune, genetic, or environmental. It accounts for five per cent of all cases. Type 2 diabetes most often occurs in people older than 40.

Around 60 million people in Europe have pre-diabetes. People with the condition have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease and strokes.

Almonds are cholesterol-free and compared with other nuts, they are the highest in six essential nutrients – fibre, magnesium, protein, potassium, copper and vitamin E.

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Almonds can fight diabetes

Here is another reason to make the tasty almonds a part of your daily diet. The humble tidbit nuts that combine tons of essential nutrients in one delicious package are an effective weapon in fighting type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, claims a new study. According to researchers, almonds added to the diet have a favorable effect on blood cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity, two vital risk factors that can trigger diabetes and heart problems.

Lead author of the study, Dr. Michelle Wien, Assistant Research Professor in Nutrition at Loma Linda University’s School of Public Health stated, “We have made great strides in chronic disease research from evidence of effective treatment to evidence of effective prevention. “It is promising for those with risk factors for chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, that dietary changes may help to improve factors that play a potential role in the disease development.”

In a bid to assess the impact of almond enriched diet as a prescription for physical wellness, the researchers conducted a study. The focus of the study was to analyze the effect of the humble nut on the progression of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The investigators enrolled a group of 65 adults comprising 48 women and 17 men with pre-diabetes in their mid-50s. The study subjects were split into two groups. As a part of the study, one group was assigned to almonds while the second formed the control group. The control group followed a diet recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA).The group assigned to almonds conformed to a similar diet but also added 20 percent calories from almonds. All the participants were asked to consume the same amount of calories from carbohydrate-containing foods, such as pasta, bread, and rice. However, those consuming the almond-enriched diet reported a lower intake of carbohydrate-containing food items.

After a period of 16 weeks, the investigators compared the insulin and cholesterol levels of both the groups. It was noticed that people consuming almond-enriched diet exhibited marked improvement in their insulin sensitivity and a dramatic reduction in LDL cholesterol as opposed to those eating the nut-free regular diet.

The study was conducted at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. The findings of the research are published in the ‘Journal of the American College of Nutrition

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Sleep Apnea Increases Insulin Resistance

To determine whether intermittent hypoxia (IH) and chronic hypoxia (CH) would have different metabolic effects, Dr. Lee and colleagues fitted adult male mice with arterial and venous catheters for continuous rapid blood monitoring of glucose and insulin sensitivity.

They then exposed the mice to either seven hours of IH, in which treatment, oxygen levels oscillated, reaching a low of about 5 percent once a minute, or CH, in which they were exposed to oxygen at a constant rate of 10 percent, and compared each treatment group to protocol-matched controls.

When compared to the control group, the IH mice demonstrated impaired glucose tolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity; the CH group, however, showed only a reduction in glucose tolerance but not insulin sensitivity compared to controls. “Both intermittent hypoxia and continuous hypoxia exposed mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance, but only the intermittent hypoxia exposed animals demonstrated a reduction in insulin sensitivity,” said Euhan John Lee, M.D., a fellow at the Medical Center.

“The intermittent hypoxia of sleep apnea and the continuous hypoxia of altitude are conditions of hypoxic stress that are known to modulate glucose and insulin homeostasis. Although both forms of hypoxia worsen glucose tolerance, this research demonstrated that the increase in insulin resistance that accompanies intermittent hypoxia, or sleep apnea, is greater than that seen with continuous hypoxia, or altitude,” explained Dr. Lee.

The specific finding that intermittent, but not continuous, hypoxia induced insulin resistance was not expected.

Increased generation of reactive oxygen species, initiation of pro-inflammatory pathways, elevated sympathetic activity, or upregulation of insulin counter-regulatory hormones in IH may contribute to the greater development of insulin resistance in those mice versus those exposed to continuous hypoxia.

“As sleep apnea continues to rise with the rate of obesity, it will be increasingly important to understand both the independent and interactive effects of both morbidities on the development of metabolic disorders. This research demonstrated that intermittent hypoxic exposure can cause changes in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion, which may have important consequences in metabolically vulnerable diabetic patients who present with co-morbid sleep apnea,” said Dr. Lee. (ANI)

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General Information

Definition

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) was originally defined in 1988 when the Center for Disease Control (CDC) in the US brought together a number of researchers who had been investigating a strange syndrome characterized by overwhelming fatigue. This definition however was reviewed by a panel of international experts in 1994 and subsequently revised.

CFS is very difficult to diagnose because the main symptom of fatigue is present in so many other illnesses. However, once other illnesses have been ruled out through laboratory tests and physical examination, a diagnosis of CFS may be given if the following criteria are met:

Clinically evaluated, unexplained persistent or relapsing chronic fatigue that is of new or definite onset (i.e., not lifelong), is not the result of ongoing exertion, is not substantially alleviated by rest, and results in substantial reduction in previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities.The concurrent occurrence of four or more of the following symptoms: substantial impairment in short-term memory or concentration; sore throat; tender lymph nodes; muscle pain; multi-joint pain without swelling or redness; headaches of a new type, pattern, or severity; unrefreshing sleep; and post-exertional malaise lasting more than 24 hours. These symptoms must have persisted or recurred during 6 or more consecutive months of illness and must not have predated the fatigue.

The full text of the revised definition can be found at the CDC website: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/cfs/about/definition/index.htm

Symptoms and General Information

Obviously, as is implied by the various names, fatigue is the major symptom in CFS. People often have the misconception that this is the only symptom and hence they assume that sufferers simply like to complain about the normal tiredness that everyone experiences after a day at work etc. CFS is actually much more than fatigue, and the fatigue experienced is a lot more severe than simple tiredness. The following is a list of the major symptoms of CFS.

  • Fatigue
    • Exercise Intolerance
    • Severe Malaise
    • Muscle and Joint Aches
    • Cognitive Dysfunction
    • Chronic Headache
    • Balance Disturbance
    • Recurrent Sore Throat
    • Mood and Sleep Disturbances
    • Abdominal Pain/Digestive Disturbances
    • Sensitivity to Light and/or Sound
    • Visual Disturbances
    • Skin Sensitivity

Possible Causes

The cause, or causes of ME/CFS are still not clear. There are a number of theories that have been proposed, the main ones propose the following factors as the cause or causes of the illness:

  • Viral Infection
  • Mycoplasma Infection
  • Immune or Endocrine Dysfunction
  • Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction
  • Environmental Toxins
  • Genetic Factors
  • Candida Overgrowth
  • Gut Dysbiosis
  • Heavy Metal Sensitivity
  • Emotional Stress or Trauma

There may be a large number of abnormalities in multiple body systems in CFS patients. These abnormalities centre around the nervous, endocrine and immune systems and the way these interact with each other. Although these abnormalities have been identified it is still unclear which are causes and which are effects. New research will hopefully shed more light on this but until then doctors who are seeing the best results with patients seem to be those who take a multifactorial approach and try to correct as many of the abnormalities discussed as they possibly can, using currently available treatments.

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