All Posts tagged public

A reversal on carbs

A growing number of top nutritional scientists blame excessive carbohydrates — not fat — for America's ills. They say cutting carbohydrates is the key to reversing obesity, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. “Fat is not the problem,” says Dr. Walter Willett, chairman of the department of nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health. “If Americans could eliminate sugary beverages, potatoes, white bread, pasta, white rice and sugary snacks, we would wipe out almost all the problems we have with weight and diabetes and other metabolic diseases.”

It's a confusing message. For years we've been fed the line that eating fat would make us fat and lead to chronic illnesses. “Dietary fat used to be public enemy No. 1,” says Dr. Edward Saltzman, associate professor of nutrition and medicine at Tufts University. “Now a growing and convincing body of science is pointing the finger at carbs, especially those containing refined flour and sugar.”

Americans, on average, eat 250 to 300 grams of carbs a day, accounting for about 55% of their caloric intake. The most conservative recommendations say they should eat half that amount. Consumption of carbohydrates has increased over the years with the help of a 30-year-old, government-mandated message to cut fat.

And the nation's levels of obesity, Type 2 diabetes and heart disease have risen. “The country's big low-fat message backfired,” says Dr. Frank Hu, professor of nutrition and epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health. “The overemphasis on reducing fat caused the consumption of carbohydrates and sugar in our diets to soar. That shift may be linked to the biggest health problems in America today.”

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Milk and cheese reduce diabetes risk

Whole-fat dairy products containing high levels of a natural fatty acid might help lower the risk of type 2 diabetes, according to a recent research by U.S. scientists. A diet rich in milk, cheese, yogurt and butter contains trans-palmitoleic acid which is known to shield against insulin resistance and diabetes. “Our results demonstrate an inverse relationship between levels of trans-palmitoleate and metabolic risk factors and diabetes incidence,” Dariush Mozaffarian, MD, DrPH, of the Harvard School of Public Health, and coauthors wrote in conclusion. “The small differences in trans-palmitoleate levels raise questions about whether this is the active compound or a marker for some other, unknown protective constituent of dairy or other ruminant foods.”

The study
The study looked at 3,736 American seniors from Medicare eligibility lists aged 65 years or older. Physical tests, diagnostic testing, questionnaires on health status, and laboratory evaluation was conducted to evaluate the levels of 45 different fatty acids in the participants. They were further followed for 10 years with the help of annual clinic visits and interim telephone calls.

Study implications
Trans-palmitoleate was responsible for an average of 0.18 percent of total fatty acid levels, with whole-fat dairy consumption accounting for the highest trans-palmitoleatele proportions. Participants who had consumed high levels of whole-fat dairy products revealed higher levels of trans-palmitoleate acid in their blood three years later, Dariush and his co-authors reported in the December issue of the journal ‘Annals of Internal Medicine.’ Further, participants with the highest levels of the acid circulating in their blood faced two-third the risk of suffering from type 2 diabetes as compared to the ones with the lowest levels. Such people also had lesser fat on their bodies, higher proportions of good cholesterol and lower levels of C-reactive protein.

“This is an extremely strong protective effect, stronger than other things we know can be beneficial against diabetes,” said Gökhan Hotamisligil, the study’s senior author and chair of the department of genetics and complex diseases at Harvard School of Public Health. “The next step is to move forward with an intervention trial to see if there is therapeutic value in people,” he added in a statement.

The research has been funded by the U.S. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Institute of Health Office of Dietary Supplements and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

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Fish Oil May Reduce Risk of Breast Cancer

“It may be that the amount of omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil supplements are higher than most people would typically get from their diet,” White said.

However, White cautioned against gleaning any recommendations from the results of one study.

“Without confirming studies specifically addressing this,” she said, “we should not draw any conclusions about a causal relationship.”

Edward Giovannucci, M.D., Sc.D., professor of nutrition and epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health and an editorial board member of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, agreed.

“It is very rare that a single study should be used to make a broad recommendation,” said Giovannucci. “Over a period of time, as the studies confirm each other, we can start to make recommendations.”

Still, fish oil continues to excite many, as evidence emerges about its protective effect on cardiovascular disease and now cancer.

Harvard researchers are currently enrolling patients for the randomized Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (also called VITAL), which will assess the impact of fish oil supplements and vitamin D on cancer, heart disease and stroke.

The researchers plan to enroll 20,000 U.S. men aged 60 years and older and women aged 65 years and older who do not have a history of these diseases and have never taken supplements.

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Becoming a Dietitian

Would I enjoy a career as a dietitian?

If you are interested in food, nutrition and health, enjoy communicating with people and have an aptitude for science – an exciting future lies ahead of you when you become an Accredited Practising Dietitian (APD).

Dietitians need to have a critical and enquiring mind, good organisational skills and initiative, good written and verbal communication skills, and be able to work effectively with people.

What do dietitians do?

Dietitians apply the art and science of human nutrition to help people understand food and health relationships and make dietary choices to get the most out of their lifestyle.

Dietitians are trained to:

  • understand food science;
  • interpret nutrition science;assess people's nutritional needs;
  • advise on nutrition and diet for general good health or for special needs such as sport or medical conditions;
  • implement and manage nutrition services and programs;
  • teach others;
  • undertake research; and
  • develop nutrition communications, nutrition programs and policies.

What are my career options?

The diverse range of job opportunities and working conditions for dietitians will enable you to develop a wide variety of interests and skills and use them in many different situations.

  • Patient care Working as part of a health care team in hospitals and nursing homes, dietitians are responsible for assessing the nutritional needs of patients, planning appropriate diets and educating patients and their families.
  • Community nutrition and public health Dietitians are involved in nutrition and health education programs. This can be at the local community level or for the population at a national level. Dietitians working in public health also assist with health planning, setting nutritional standards, and developing and implementing nutrition policies.
  • Food service and management Dietitians combine management skills and nutrition expertise when delivering food services in hospitals, nursing homes, meals on wheels, hospitality and catering. Dietitians also manage nutrition services and health programs.
  • Consultancy/private practice Dietitians provide consultancy services to individuals, groups and organisations which include individual counselling, group programs, preventive health programs and nutrition education. Dietitians also prepare nutritional information for publication, work with the media and in public relations.
  • Food industry Dietitians working in the food industry are involved in food regulatory issues (food law), food safety and quality systems, consumer and health professional education, nutrition research, product development, nutrition-related marketing and public relations.
  • Research and teaching Dietitians work as part of research teams investigating nutrition and health issues and developing practical nutrition recommendations. Dietitians are also involved in training student dietitians, doctors and other health professionals.
  • Other fields Dietitians are able to transfer their skills to other fields such as management, public relations, marketing, program management, communications, media, health promotion, policy development and information technology.

What are the salaries – public sector and private practice fees?

In the public healthcare sector dietitians' salaries are similar to other allied health professionals, nurses and teachers. To find out about salaries you should visit the website of the relevant State/Territory Departments of Health or obtain the relevant awards (eg Health Professionals), collective agreements or enterprise agreements in your State or Territory.

In other work areas dietitians' salaries reflect salaries for that industry, e.g. university lecturers. It is against the Trade Practices Act for DAA to set or recommend fees therefore dietitians in private practice or consulting do set their own fees. DAA does survey members on what fees are being charged and the survey results are provided as a guide to what you may expect to pay if consulting a dietitian.

What course do I select?

To become a dietitian you need to complete a tertiary level course accredited by DAA. Currently there are courses in ACT, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia. Courses vary depending on the university. Some examples of current courses include: a one to two year post-graduate diploma or master degree following a bachelor of science degree (including physiology and biochemistry), or a four year integrated undergraduate course. Courses cover food, nutrition, health and diet-related medical conditions, and skills in communication, counselling, education, health promotion, management, research and critical analysis of literature.

How will my expertise be recognised?

Accredited Practising Dietitians (APD) are recognised professionals who have the qualifications and expertise to provide expert nutrition and dietary advice. APDs need to meet detailed criteria developed by DAA. These include ongoing education to keep up to date with advances in health and food sciences and a commitment to a Code of Professional Conduct. All APDs can be identified by the APD title and logo, and are listed on a national APD register.

Source: Dietitians Association of Australia

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Real Meals Cookbook

The UK Government has made available a new, free cookbook for all 11-year olds today, to help them learn healthy versions of old favourites – from spaghetti bolognaise; risotto; lamb hot pot; lamb rogan josh; roast chicken legs; chow mein; and apple crumble.

The 'Real Meals – Simple Cooking Made Easy' cookbook containing 32 classic recipes and sauces and endorsed by top chef Phil Vickery, was chosen after the public was asked to nominate the basic dishes every child should learn how to cook.

The cookbook is available online at

http://www.direct.gov.uk/prod_consum_dg/groups/dg_digitalassets/@dg/@en/documents/digitalasset/dg_171715.pdf

 

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Food Advertising Promotes Imbalanced Diets

Researchers analyzed 84 hours of primetime and 12 hours of Saturday morning broadcast television over a 28-day period in 2004. ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC were sampled on a rotating basis to develop a complete profile of each network. The Saturday-morning cartoon segment (from 8:00 am to 11:00 am) was included to capture food advertisements marketed primarily to children.

All 96 hours of observations were videotaped and reviewed later to identify food advertisements and specific food items being promoted. Only food items that were clearly promoted for sale during an advertisement were recorded. Each food item was then analyzed for nutritional content. Observed portion sizes were converted to the number of servings.

The article indicates that the observed food items fail to comply with Food Guide Pyramid recommendations in every food group except grains. The average observed food item contained excessive servings of sugars, fat, and meat and inadequate servings of dairy, fruit and vegetables. The situation was similar for essential nutrients, with the observed foods oversupplying eight nutrients: protein, selenium, sodium, niacin, total fat, saturated fat, thiamin and cholesterol. These same foods undersupplied 12 nutrients: iron, phosphorus, vitamin A, carbohydrates, calcium, vitamin E, magnesium, copper, potassium, pantothenic acid, fiber, and vitamin D.

The authors advocate nutritional warnings for imbalanced foods similar to those mandated on direct-to-consumer drug advertisements. They recommend investigating health promotion strategies that target consumers, the food industry, public media, and regulation focusing on a three-pronged approach.

“First, the public should be informed about the nature and extent of the bias in televised food advertisements. Educational efforts should identify the specific nutrients that tend to be oversupplied and undersupplied in advertised foods and should specify the single food items that surpass an entire day's worth of sugar and fat servings. Second, educational efforts should also provide consumers with skills for distinguishing balanced food selections from imbalanced food selections. For example, interactive websites could be developed that test a participant's ability to identify imbalanced food selections from a list of options. This type of game-based approach would likely appeal to youth and adults. Third, the public should be directed to established nutritional guidelines and other credible resources for making healthful food choices.”

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