All Posts tagged potential

Garlic protection from Osteoarthritis

Researchers at King’s College London and the University of East Anglia have discovered that women who consume a diet high in allium vegetables, such as garlic, onions and leeks, have lower levels of hip osteoarthritis. The findings, published in the BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders journal, not only highlight the possible effects of diet in protecting against osteoarthritis, but also show the potential for using compounds found in garlic to develop treatments for the condition. A relationship between body weight and osteoarthritis was previously recognised, although it is not yet completely understood. This study is the first of its kind to delve deeper into the dietary patterns and influences that could impact on development and prevention of the condition.

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in adults, affecting around 8 million people in the UK, and women are more likely to develop it than men. It causes pain and disability by affecting the hip, knees and spine in the middle-aged and elderly population. Currently there is no effective treatment other than pain relief and, ultimately, joint replacement.

The study, funded by Arthritis Research UK, the Wellcome Trust and Dunhill Medical Trust, looked at over 1,000 healthy female twins, many of whom had no symptoms of arthritis. The team carried out a detailed assessment of the diet patterns of the twins and analysed these alongside x-ray images, which captured the extent of early osteoarthritis in the participants’ hips, knees and spine. They found that in those who consumed a healthy diet with a high intake of fruit and vegetables, particularly alliums such as garlic, there was less evidence of early osteoarthritis in the hip joint.

To investigate the potential protective effect of alliums further, researchers studied the compounds found in garlic. They found that that a compound called diallyl disulphide limits the amount of cartilage-damaging enzymes when introduced to a human cartilage cell-line in the laboratory. Dr Frances Williams, lead author from the Department of Twin Research at King’s College London, says: “While we don’t yet know if eating garlic will lead to high levels of this component in the joint, these findings may point the way towards future treatments and prevention of hip osteoarthritis. “It has been known for a long time that there is a link between body weight and osteoarthritis. Many researchers have tried to find dietary components influencing the condition, but this is the first large scale study of diet in twins. If our results are confirmed by follow-up studies, this will point the way towards dietary intervention or targeted drug therapy for people with osteoarthritis.”

Professor Ian Clark of the University of East Anglia said: “Osteoarthritis is a major health issue and this exciting study shows the potential for diet to influence the course of the disease. With further work to confirm and extend these early findings, this may open up the possibility of using diet or dietary supplements in the future treatment osteoarthritis.”

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Beetroot juice could help people live more active lives

Beetroot juice could help people live more active lives

New research into the health benefits of beetroot juice suggests it's not only athletes who can benefit from its performance enhancing properties – its physiological effects could help the elderly or people with heart or lung-conditions enjoy more active lives.

Beetroot juice has been one of the biggest stories in sports science over the past year after researchers at the University of Exeter found it enables people to exercise for up to 16% longer. The startling results have led to a host of athletes – from Premiership footballers to professional cyclists – looking into its potential uses. A new piece of research by the university in conjunction with the Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry has revealed the physiological effects of drinking beetroot juice could help a much wider range of people.

beetroot-juice-lg

In the latest study, published in the Journal of Applied Physiology, the researchers looked at low intensity exercise and found that test subjects used less oxygen while walking – effectively reducing the effort it took to walk by 12%. Katie Lansley, a PhD student from the university's Sport and Health Sciences department and lead author of the study, said: “As you get older, or if you have conditions which affect your cardiovascular system, the amount of oxygen you can take in to use during exercise drops considerably. This means that, for some people, even simple tasks like walking may not be manageable. “What we've seen in this study is that beetroot juice can actually reduce the amount of oxygen you need to perform even low-intensity exercise. In principle, this effect could help people do things they wouldn't otherwise be able to do.”

When consumed, beetroot juice has two marked physiological effects. Firstly, it widens blood vessels, reducing blood pressure and allowing more blood flow. Secondly, it affects muscle tissue, reducing the amount of oxygen needed by muscles during activity. The combined effects have a significant impact on performing physical tasks, whether it involves low-intensity or high-intensity effort. So far the research on the impacts of beetroot juice has only been carried out on younger people who are in good health, but the researchers believe there is no reason why the effects of beetroot juice wouldn't help others. “While we haven't yet measured the effects on the elderly or those with heart or lung conditions, there is the potential for a positive impact in these populations which we intend to go on and investigate further,” Katie Lansley added.

Beetroot juice contains high levels of nitrate. The latest study has proved that this is the key ingredient which causes the increase in performance, rather than any other component of the beetroot juice. Professor Andy Jones, the senior scientist on the study and a pioneer of research into beetroot juice, said: “In this study, we were able to use – for the first time – both normal beetroot juice and beetroot juice with the nitrate filtered out. Test subjects didn't know which one they were getting. The drinks both looked and tasted exactly the same. Each time the normal, nitrate-rich juice was used, we saw a marked improvement in performance which wasn't there with the filtered juice – so we know the nitrate is the active ingredient.”

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Denufosol improves Cystic Fibrosis in clinical trials

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease that causes a thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs and digestive tract. A clinical trial of a new drug called denufosol found that those given the medication for six months prevented some of the accumulation and improved performance on lung tests.

The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation estimates that about 30,000 children and adults in the United States have the condition that clogs the lungs and leads to life-threatening lung infections. The mucus also obstructs the pancreas and stops natural enzymes from helping the body break down and absorb food.

Cystic fibrosis is caused by a genetic mutation that disrupts the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein, an ion channel. Denufosol tetrasodium inhalation solution works by correcting ion transport in patients to enhance airway hydration and mucus clearance by increasing chloride secretion, inhibiting sodium absorption and increasing ciliary beat frequency.

Frank J. Accurso MD of the University of Colorado and colleagues included about 350 children with cystic fibrosis aged five and older in the study called TIGER-1, The Transport of Ions to Generate Epithelial Rehydration. All had a forced expiratory volume (FEV1) at least 75% of normal, indicating normal to mildly impaired lung function characteristic of early cystic fibrosis.

The patients were randomized to receive either 60 milligrams of inhaled denufosol three times daily or a matching placebo for 24 weeks. This was followed by another 24-week open-label safety extension phase.

The patients on the new medication had increase in FEV1 of 0.048 L, approximately 2% over baseline. In addition, the researchers found further lung improvement by 0.115L by the end of the open-label phase. The placebo group, when switched over to denofusol in the open-label phase, also improved by a mean 0.078 L in FEV1.

Big improvements weren't expected, says Accurso, because the drug is primarily designed to prevent or delay loss of lung function rather than act as a rescue therapy.

Denufosol appeared to be safe without serious adverse events or impaired growth of the young patients, suggesting it could be suitable as an early intervention. Intervention for cystic fibrosis early in its course has the potential to delay or prevent progressive changes that lead to irreversible airflow obstructions, the researchers say in their study published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

A second phase III trial, which is called TIGER-2, is ongoing which will incorporate a longer placebo-controlled treatment phase. Inspire Pharmaceuticals is targeting a potential US commercial launch of the drug for 2012, pending FDA approval.

Source reference:
Accurso FJ, et al “Denufosol Tetrasodium in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis and Normal to Mildly Impaired Lung Function” Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011.

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Study Supports Gluten-Free Diet in Potential Celiac Disease Patients

Findings from a new study of 141 adults add to an ongoing medical debate over which patients with symptoms of celiac disease should go on a gluten-free diet. Published in ACS' Journal of Proteome Research, the study concludes that people currently diagnosed as “potential” celiac disease patients and not advised to follow a gluten-free diet may not be “potential” patients at all. Rather, the scientists found that these patients have the same distinctive metabolic fingerprint as patients with full-blown disease who do benefit from gluten-free diets.

In the study, Ivano Bertini and colleagues explain that celiac disease is an autoimmune digestive disorder characterized by the inability to digest a protein called gliadin, a component of gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, and barley. The condition causes diarrhea, bloating, and other symptoms in over 3 million people in the United States alone. Treatment is avoidance of foods containing gluten. But the disease is often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Definitive diagnosis involves biopsy of the small intestine, showing tissue damage. People with a positive blood test for the condition but no positive biopsy usually are diagnosed as “potential” celiac patients and may or may not be advised to follow a gluten-free diet.

The scientists used magnetic resonance metabolic profiling to analyze the biochemical markers in the blood and urine of 61 patients with celiac disease, 29 with potential celiac disease, and 51 healthy people. They found that those with potential disease largely shared the same profile as those with the confirmed disease and that the biochemical markers in both groups differed significantly from those of the healthy individuals. “Our results demonstrate that metabolic alterations may precede the development of small intestinal villous atrophy and provide a further rationale for early institution of gluten-free diet in patients with potential celiac disease, as recently suggested by prospective clinical studies,” the scientists conclude.

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Garlic could protect against hip osteoarthritis

Garlic could protect against hip osteoarthritis

Researchers at King's College London and the University of East Anglia have discovered that women who consume a diet high in allium vegetables, such as garlic, onions and leeks, have lower levels of hip osteoarthritis. The findings, published in the BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders journal, not only highlight the possible effects of diet in protecting against osteoarthritis, but also show the potential for using compounds found in garlic to develop treatments for the condition. A relationship between body weight and osteoarthritis was previously recognised, although it is not yet completely understood.

This study is the first of its kind to delve deeper into the dietary patterns and influences that could impact on development and prevention of the condition. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in adults, affecting around 8 million people in the UK, and women are more likely to develop it than men. It causes pain and disability by affecting the hip, knees and spine in the middle-aged and elderly population. Currently there is no effective treatment other than pain relief and, ultimately, joint replacement.

garlic

The study, funded by Arthritis Research UK, the Wellcome Trust and Dunhill Medical Trust, looked at over 1,000 healthy female twins, many of whom had no symptoms of arthritis. The team carried out a detailed assessment of the diet patterns of the twins and analysed these alongside x-ray images, which captured the extent of early osteoarthritis in the participants' hips, knees and spine. They found that in those who consumed a healthy diet with a high intake of fruit and vegetables, particularly alliums such as garlic, there was less evidence of early osteoarthritis in the hip joint.

To investigate the potential protective effect of alliums further, researchers studied the compounds found in garlic. They found that that a compound called diallyl disulphide limits the amount of cartilage-damaging enzymes when introduced to a human cartilage cell-line in the laboratory. Dr Frances Williams, lead author from the Department of Twin Research at King's College London, says: “While we don't yet know if eating garlic will lead to high levels of this component in the joint, these findings may point the way towards future treatments and prevention of hip osteoarthritis. “It has been known for a long time that there is a link between body weight and osteoarthritis. Many researchers have tried to find dietary components influencing the condition, but this is the first large scale study of diet in twins. If our results are confirmed by follow-up studies, this will point the way towards dietary intervention or targeted drug therapy for people with osteoarthritis.”

Professor Ian Clark of the University of East Anglia said: “Osteoarthritis is a major health issue and this exciting study shows the potential for diet to influence the course of the disease. With further work to confirm and extend these early findings, this may open up the possibility of using diet or dietary supplements in the future treatment osteoarthritis.”

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Vitamin B1 may prevent heart problems

A dietary supplement of the synthetic derivative of vitamin B1 has the potential to prevent heart disease caused by diabetes, according to new research from the University of Bristol, funded by Diabetes UK. Vitamin B1 may help the body to dispose of toxins and therefore protect cells of the heart from becoming damaged.

Diabetes leaves the heart more vulnerable to stress as less oxygen and nutrients are delivered to the heart and other organs. Heart damage can be caused by high levels of glucose entering cardiovascular cells, which forms toxins that accelerate the ageing of the cell. Around 50 per cent of people with diabetes die from cardiovascular disease, and this complication is the leading cause of death among people with diabetes. Researchers warn that with increasing prevalence of diabetes ( around one in twenty people in the UK are now diagnosed with the condition ), diabetes will result in a new epidemic of heart failure unless new treatments are developed.

A team of researchers at the University of Bristol gave a synthetic derivative of vitamin B1 called benfotiamine to mice with and without diabetes. They found that treating mice with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes with benfotiamine from the early stages of diabetes can delay progression to heart failure. They also found that the vitamin B1 derivative improved survival and healing after heart attacks in Type 1 mice ( and even in the mice without diabetes too ). Foods rich in vitamin B1 include Marmite, yeast and quorn, but it is not yet known whether changes to diet alone would provide enough of the vitamin to see the same effects as supplements achieved in mice.

Previous Diabetes UK-funded research at the University of Warwick was the first to show that people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes have around 75 per cent lower levels of vitamin B1 than people without diabetes. It is thought that this may not be due to diet, but due to the rate at which the vitamin is cleared from the body. Small scale clinical trials of people with Type 2 diabetes have also discovered a link between taking vitamin B1 supplements and a reduction in the signs of kidney disease.

The latest research has been published in the Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. Professor Paolo Madeddu who led this research at the University of Bristol said “Supplementation with benfotiamine from early stages of diabetes improved the survival and healing of the hearts of diabetic mice that have had heart attacks, and helped prevent cardiovascular disease in mice with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. We conclude that benfotiamine could be a novel treatment for people with diabetes, and the next step in this research will be testing whether similar effects are seen in humans.”

Dr Victoria King, Head of Research at Diabetes UK said “Diabetes UK is pleased to have supported this research and is encouraged by these promising results which now need to be tested and confirmed in human trials. We would like to note that it’s still too early to draw any firm conclusions about the role of vitamin B1 in the prevention of complications and we would not advise that people look to vitamin supplements to reduce their risk of cardiovascular complications at this stage. Taking your prescribed medication, eating a healthy balanced diet and taking regular physical activity are key to good diabetes management and therefore reducing your risk of diabetes associated complications.”

Source

Benfotiamine improves functional recovery of the infarcted heart via activation of pro-survival G6PD/Akt signaling pathway and modulation of neurohormonal response by Rajesh Katare, Andrea Caporali, Costanza Emanueli, Paolo Madeddu in the Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology.

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Anti-Cancer Effects of Broccoli

Light has been cast on the interaction between broccoli consumption and reduced prostate cancer risk. Researchers writing in BioMed Central's open access journal Molecular Cancer have found that sulforaphane, a chemical found in broccoli, interacts with cells lacking a gene called PTEN to reduce the chances of prostate cancer developing.

Richard Mithen, from the Institute of Food Research, an institute of BBSRC, worked with a team of researchers on Norwich Research Park, UK, to carry out a series of experiments in human prostate tissue and mouse models of prostate cancer to investigate the interactions between expression of the PTEN gene and the anti-cancer activity of sulforaphane. He said, “PTEN is a tumour suppressor gene, the deletion or inactivation of which can initiate prostate carcinogenesis, and enhance the probability of cancer progression. We've shown here that sulforaphane has different effects depending on whether the PTEN gene is present”.

The research team found that in cells which express PTEN, dietary intervention with SF has no effect on the development of cancer. In cells that don't express the gene, however, sulforaphane causes them to become less competitive, providing an explanation of how consuming broccoli can reduce the risk of prostate cancer incidence and progression. According to Mithen, “This also suggests potential therapeutic applications of sulforaphane and related compounds”.

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Beetroot Juice May Benefit High Blood Pressure

Beetroot juice, a source of high nitrate levels, may help prevent high blood pressure, according to a study published in Hypertension. Nitrate is a compound that increases the amount of gas nitric oxide that circulates through the blood.In an effort to determine if beetroot juice contains enough nitrate to lower blood pressure, researchers had two groups of individuals either drink the juice or take nitrate capsules.

The results of the study showed that within 24 hours, the supplements and the juice had lowered the blood pressure of people in both groups. Furthermore, the investigators discovered that about 250 mL of beetroot juice was all that was needed to have the same effects on one's blood pressure as the nitrate capsules.

These findings showed that “beetroot and nitrate capsules are equally effective in lowering blood pressure, indicating that it is the nitrate content of beetroot juice that underlies its potential to reduce blood pressure,” said Amrita Ahluwalia, lead researcher of the study.

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Memories are made of this

“This protein is present in the part of the brain in which memories are stored. We have found that in order for any memory to be laid down this protein, called the M3-muscarinic receptor, has to be activated.

“We have also determined that this protein undergoes a very specific change during the formation of a memory – and that this change is an essential part of memory formation. In this regard our study reveals at least one of the molecular mechanisms that are operating in the brain when we form a memory and as such this represents a major break through in our understanding of how we lay down memories.

“This finding is not only interesting in its own right but has important clinical implications. One of the major symptoms of Alzheimer's disease is memory loss. Our study identifies one of the key processes involved in memory and learning and we state in the paper that drugs designed to target the protein identified in our study would be of benefit in treating Alzheimer's disease.”

Professor Tobin said there was tremendous excitement about the breakthrough the team has made and its potential application: “It has been fascinating to look at the molecular processes involved in memory formation. We were delighted not only with the scientific importance of our finding but also by the prospect that our work could have an impact on the design of drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.”

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No Clear Criteria for Diagnosing Food Allergies

Food allergies, by some accounts, affect about 4 percent of adults and 5 percent of children under the age of 6 in the United States, though this study raises questions about the reliability of such figures.

Food allergies can cause a variety of problems, ranging from mild skin rashes or nausea to a life-threatening, whole-body reaction known as anaphylaxis. The allergies can also have serious effects on patients' social interactions, school and work attendance, family economics and overall quality of life. “It's a life-defining diagnosis in a way,” said Chafen.

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases is working on new clinical practice guidelines and, as part of its efforts, enlisted Chafen and her colleagues to review the current evidence on food allergies.

The researchers started their work by sifting through thousands of scientific papers, published between 1988 and 2009, that focused on the four foods — milk, eggs, fish and peanut and tree nuts — responsible for more than half of all allergies. They ultimately reviewed 72 studies, including one meta-analysis on prevalence, 18 studies on diagnosis, 28 studies on management, and four meta-analyses and 21 additional studies on prevention.

When examining the literature, the researchers found there was no universal definition of “food allergy,” in spite of NIAID's defining it as an “adverse immune response” that is “distinct from other adverse responses” such as a food intolerance. In fact, 82 percent of the studies provided their own definition of food allergy.

“This validates the idea that there exists a great deal of complexity and confusion in the field of food allergy, even at the level of the medical literature,” said co-author Marc Riedl, MD, MS, section head of clinical immunology and allergy at UCLA.

Along the same lines, there was a lack of uniformity for criteria in making a diagnosis. The current gold standard is the food challenge, during which a physician gives a patient a sample of the suspected offending food, sometimes in capsule form, and then monitors for allergic reaction. However, this test requires specialized personnel, is expensive and has a risk of anaphylaxis. Office-based tests were used to diagnose many patients; these include a skin-prick test, during which a dilute extract of the potential allergen is placed on the skin, and a blood test that determines the presence of food-specific allergic antibodies known as IgE.

As the researchers discuss in their paper, the concern with the latter two tests is that they're not definitive: Patients with non-specific symptoms, such as a rash or digestive troubles, and positive skin-prick or blood tests actually have less than a 50 percent chance of having a food allergy. In order to make a proper diagnosis, they pointed out, physicians need to evaluate the data within the context of a patient's history and have a great understanding of symptoms consistent with true food allergy.

What this means, then, is there is a potential for the overdiagnosis of food allergy.

“I frequently see patients in my clinical practice who have food intolerance, but have previously had inadequate or inappropriate evaluation and been told they have a 'food allergy',” said Riedl. “This causes a great deal of unnecessary anxiety and concern for the patient.”

Previous studies have tried to determine whether the skin-prick or blood test is superior over the other, but in reviewing the evidence, Chafen and her colleagues found “no statistical superiority in either test.” They also found generally inconclusive results from 10 previous studies in which the tests were combined, in an effort to improve diagnostic accuracy.

“I was very surprised,” said Chafen. “I'm a general internist and I thought diagnostic strategies were more-studied.”

In terms of treatment, Chafen said expert opinion is that an elimination diet — having the patient stop consuming the food that causes the allergic reaction — is the most common. Although the approach is a common-sense one (“If a patient breaks out in hives repeatedly after drinking milk, it's your instinct as a physician to say, 'Don't drink milk,'” Chafen said), the researchers found the treatment hasn't been well-studied.

It would be unethical to conduct controlled studies of elimination diets for patients with serious, life-threatening allergic reactions, but as pointed out in the paper, there are few studies of this approach on patients with relatively minor symptoms.

“In these instances, the benefits of an elimination diet are uncertain based on published evidence and potential benefits need to be weighed against the potential nutritional risks of such a diet, particularly in children,” the researchers wrote.

Chafen and her colleagues also found that immunotherapy, a treatment in which the body's immune system is altered by administering increasing doses of the allergen over time, appeared to be effective at eliminating symptoms in the short term. Immunotherapy isn't a licensed method for allergy treatment, but the researchers urged more study on its long-term effect and safety.

In all, the researchers concluded, the food-allergy field is in need of uniformity in the criteria for what constitutes an allergy and a set of evidence-based guidelines upon which to make this diagnosis. NIAID, which put together an expert panel and has reviewed the group's analysis, is planning to finalize such guidelines later this summer.

As for Chafen, who sees patients with potential food allergies, these findings have encouraged her to rely more on specialists to help clinch a diagnosis. “People need to be seen by someone with a deep understanding of diagnostic tests and criteria,” she said. “The distinction between food intolerance and food allergy is really important.”

The study was funded by NIAID. Other Stanford authors on the study are Dena Bravata, MD, a PCOR affiliate; and Vandana Sundaram, MPH, assistant director of research for CHP/PCOR. Paul Shekelle, MD, PhD, with the RAND Corp.'s Southern California Evidence-Based Practice Center and the West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, is the senior author.

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