Many people snore. Many people have heart attacks. Researchers from the University of Pittsburgh say they have found a connection between the two conditions. “People often report in primary care offices that they or their spouse complains of loud snoring, that they have difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep. And we as sleep researchers were interested in how this broad array of sleep symptoms that are often reported might relate to later cardiovascular risk,” lead research author Wendy Troxel of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine said.
Previous research has looked at the link between heart disease and obstructive sleep apnea, a problem where excess tissue blocks the airway during sleep. But this study looked purely at snoring. “There are some people with loud snoring who don't have obstructive sleep apnea,” Troxel continued.
In Troxel's government-funded study, more that 800 relatively healthy people ages 45 to 78 were followed for three years. High blood sugar and low levels of good cholesterol, both risk factors for heart disease, were twice as likely to present in the participants who reported frequent, loud snoring.
In addition to snorers, participants who had trouble falling asleep and had unrefreshing sleep were also at increased risk for metabolic syndrome, when additional heart disease risk factors like obesity, high blood pressure, and high levels of triglyceride fats are present. “Sleep complaints aren't just benign annoyances but something that can really foretell important health consequences,” Troxel stressed, “and they should really be discussed with [medical] providers and referred for further treatment if necessary.”
The research conducted at Pitt was an observational study. Patients were not treated to see whether decreasing snoring could lower the risk of heart disease. Rather, the study shows that snorers should pay particular attention to their heart disease risk factors.
Mothers who did not breastfeed their children have significantly higher rates of type 2 diabetes later in life than moms who breastfed, report University of Pittsburgh researchers in a study published in the September issue of the American Journal of Medicine.
“We have seen dramatic increases in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes over the last century,” said Eleanor Bimla Schwarz, MD, MS, assistant professor of medicine, epidemiology, and obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive sciences at the University of Pittsburgh. She also has a secondary appointment in epidemiology at the GSPH. “Diet and exercise are widely known to impact the risk of type 2 diabetes, but few people realize that breastfeeding also reduces mothers’ risk of developing the disease later in life by decreasing maternal belly fat.”
The study included 2,233 women between the ages of 40 and 78. Overall, 56 percent of mothers reported they had breastfed an infant for at least one month. Twenty-seven percent of mothers who did not breastfeed developed type 2 diabetes and were almost twice as likely to develop the disease as women who had breastfed or never given birth. In contrast, mothers who breastfed all of their children were no more likely to develop diabetes than women who never gave birth. These long-term differences were notable even after considering age, race, physical activity and tobacco and alcohol use.
“Our study provides another good reason to encourage women to breastfeed their infants, at least for the infant’s first month of life,” said Schwarz. “Clinicians need to consider women’s pregnancy and lactation history when advising women about their risk for developing type 2 diabetes.”
Schwarz also is an assistant investigator at the Magee-Womens Research Institute. Co-authors of the study include Jeanette Brown, MD, Jennifer M. Creasman, MPH, and David Thom, MD, PhD, University of California, San Francisco; Alison Stuebe, MD, MSc, University of North Carolina School of Medicine; Candace K. McClure, PhD, University of Pittsburgh; and Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, PhD, Kaiser Permanente, CA.
The research was funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the National Institute of Child Health and Development.