All Posts tagged overweight

Infant obesity widespread in the USA

A study led by Brian Moss of Wayne State University’s School of Social Work reveals that one third of infants in the U.S. are obese or at risk of obesity. In addition, of the 8,000 infants studied, those found to be obese at 9 months had a higher risk of being obese at 2 years. Other studies have revealed that Infant obesity increases the risk for later childhood obesity and could lead to other obesity-related health problems like heart disease, asthma, high blood pressure and cancer. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, childhood and infant obesity has more than tripled in the past 30 years.

Moss, in collaboration with William H. Yeaton from the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, published their analysis, “Young Children’s Weight Trajectories and Associated Risk Factors: Results from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B),” in the January/February 2011 issue of the American Journal of Health Promotion. The ECLS-B draws from a representative sample of American children born in 2001 with diverse socioeconomic and racial/ethnic backgrounds. It is one of the first studies to monitor weight status changes of a nationally representative sample of very young children.

For their study, Moss and Yeaton used results from ECLS-B to follow the trajectory of the infants’ weight status at 9 months and 2 years, then performed statistical analyses to examine whether weight persistence, loss or gain was linked to demographic characteristics such as sex, race/ethnicity, geographic region or socioeconomic status. Children above the 95th percentile on standard growth charts were considered to have infant obesity, children in the 85th to 95th percentile were considered at risk for obesity.

Some of their results show that:
• 31.9 percent of 9-month-olds were at risk or obese;
• 34.3 percent of 2-year-olds were obese or at risk for obesity;
• 17 percent of the infants were obese at 9 months, rising to 20 percent at 2 years;
• 44 percent of the infants who were obese at 9 months remained obese at 2 years;
• Hispanic and low-income children were at greater risk for weight status gain;
• Females and Asian/Pacific Islanders were at lower risk for undesirable weight changes;
• 40 percent of 2-year-olds from the lowest income homes were at risk or obese compared to 27 percent of those from the highest income homes.

“This study shows that a significant proportion of very young children in the United States is at risk or is obese,” said Moss. The team notes a consistent pattern of obesity starting early in life. “As obesity becomes an increasing public health concern, these findings will help guide health practitioners by targeting high risk populations and foster culturally sensitive interventions aimed at prevention and treatment of obesity,” Moss said.

“We are not saying that overweight babies are doomed to be obese adults. However, we have found evidence that being overweight at 9 months puts you on track for being overweight or obese later in childhood.”

More

More risk factors linked with overweight

The link between obesity and cardiac disease is not merely anecdotal, there is proof for that. Now, there is further proof that even overweight causes a clustering of risk factors for cardio vascular abnormalities. A recent publication in Heart Asia, a British Medical Journal, has showed that there is not much difference between the cardio vascular risk factors in obese and overweight people. “The clutch of risk factors – glucose intolerance, hyper tension, high cholesterol – are all significantly higher among overweight and obese subjects than among normal subjects,” Vijay Viswanathan, MV Hospital for Diabetes and Prof. M.Viswanthan Diabetes Research Center said. He co-authored the article with Shabana Tharkar, also from the Indian hospital.

The study, conducted among two groups – 2021 subjects aged over 20 years, and 1289 subjects aged 8-19 years – indicated that even among overweight, 'non-obese' people, the presence of major cardiovascular risk factors was not significantly different. While the total diabetes prevalence among the obese population is 28.4 per cent, among the overweight population is 25 per cent. Again, with hypertension, the value for the obese group is 34.2 per cent, while for the overweight population it is 27.6 per cent. In contrast, the corresponding values are 16.2 per cent (diabetes) and 20.2 (hypertension).

Similarly, the study showed higher values for triglycerides and high HDL cholesterol for both these groups.

Overweight was defined as a Body Mass Index, equal to, or in excess of 25 kg/m2 and obesity, a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or above. Further worrisome is the increasing rate of overweight and obesity among both men and women from 1995 to 2008, across all age groups. Dr. Viswanathan added that this is the result of rapid urbanisation. “Obesity has already hit the Western world and it is time for Indians to wake up to the alarm bells,” according to the article. Results from previous studies show a lower risk of developing diabetes with just a five per cent initial reduction in weight, Dr. Viswanathan said.

The findings highlight the urgent need for framing direct and indirect strategies to control the rising levels of obesity in the population, in order to substantially reduce the country's non communicable diseases burden, he added. Regulating the diet, reducing intake of fast foods and high-calorie meals, and upping physical activity and exercise on a regular basis would go a long way in keeping weight under control, diabetologists advise.

More

Obesity may interfere with Vitamin D absorption

The more obese a person is, the poorer his or her vitamin D status, a new study by a team of Norwegian researchers suggests. The study found an inverse relationship between excess pounds and an insufficient amount of vitamin D, which is critical to cell health, calcium absorption and proper immune function. Vitamin D deficiency can raise the risk for bone deterioration and certain types of cancer. The researchers also suggest that overweight and obese people may have problems processing the vitamin properly.

The team noted that after the so-called “sunshine vitamin” is initially absorbed (through either sun exposure or the consumption of such foods as oily fish and fortified milk), the body must then convert it into a usable form, called 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. This conversion process, however, seems to be short-circuited among obese people, complicating efforts to gauge their true vitamin D health.

The findings are published in the January issue of the Journal of Nutrition.

To investigate the impact of obesity on vitamin D absorption, the team spent six years tracking 1,464 women and 315 men, with an average age of 49. Based on the participants' body mass index (BMI), an indicator of body fatness calculated from a persons weight and height, the average participant was deemed to be obese. About 11 percent were categorized as “morbidly obese.”

From the outset, overall vitamin D levels were found to be below the healthy range, the authors noted. By the end of the study, overall levels of vitamin D were found to have dropped off “significantly” while BMI readings rose by 5 percent. The research team concluded that having a higher-than-normal weight, body fat and BMI was linked to a poorer vitamin D profile. For example, people with the lowest BMI readings had 14 percent higher vitamin D levels than those with the highest BMI readings. Because vitamin D levels did not correlate properly with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels (and in fact appeared to have an abnormal inverse relationship), the authors suggested that future efforts to explore vitamin D status among obese people should test for both measures of vitamin D health.

They also suggested that people who are overweight and obese might benefit from vitamin D supplementation and more exposure to sunlight.

SOURCE: Journal of Nutrition, news release, Dec. 14, 2010

More

Diogenes: Has The Secret To Preventing Obesity Been Discovered?

Diogenes: Has The Secret To Preventing Obesity Been Discovered?

Throughout the project, the families received expert guidance from dietitians and were asked to provide blood and urine samples.

Diogenes: The five diet types

The design comprised the following five diet types:

  • A low-protein diet (13% of energy consumed) with a high glycemic index (GI)*
  • A low-protein, low-GI diet
  • A high-protein (25% of energy consumed), low-GI diet
  • A high-protein, high-GI diet
  • A control group which followed the current dietary recommendations without special instructions regarding glycemic index levels

A high-protein, low-GI diet works best

A total of 938 overweight adults with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 34 kg/sq m were initially placed on an 800-kcal-per-day diet for eight weeks before the actual diet intervention was initiated. A total of 773 adult participants completed this initial weight-loss phase and were then randomly assigned to one of five different diet types, where 548 participants completed the six-month diet intervention (completion rate of 71%).

Fewer participants in the high-protein, low-GI groups dropped out of the project than in the low-protein, high-GI group (26.4% and 25.6%, respectively, vs. 37.4%; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01 for the two comparisons, respectively). The initial weight loss on the 800-kcal diet was an average of 11.0 kg.

The average weight regain among all participants was 0.5 kg, but among the participants who completed the study, those in the low-protein/high-GI group showed the poorest results with a significant weight gain of 1.67 kg. The weight regain was 0.93 kg less for participants on a high-protein diet than for those on a low-protein diet and 0.95 kg less in the groups on a low-GI diet compared to those on a high-GI diet.

The children's study

The results of the children's study have been published in a separate article in Pediatrics. In the families, there were 827 children who only participated in the diet intervention. Thus, they were never required to go on a diet or count calories – they simply followed the same diet as their parents. Approx. 45% of the children in these families were overweight. The results of the children's study were remarkable: In the group of children who maintained a high-protein, low-GI diet the prevalence of overweight dropped spontaneously from approx. 46% to 39% – a decrease of approx. 15%.

Proteins and low-GI foods ad libitum – the way ahead

The Diogenes study shows that the current dietary recommendations are not optimal for preventing weight gain among overweight people. A diet consisting of a slightly higher protein content and low-GI foods ad libitum appears to be easier to observe and has been documented to ensure that overweight people who have lost weight maintain their weight loss. Furthermore, the diet results in a spontaneous drop in the prevalence of overweight among their children.

Citation: Thomas Meinert Larsen, Ph.D., Stine-Mathilde Dalskov, M.Sc., Marleen van Baak, Ph.D., Susan A. Jebb, Ph.D., Angeliki Papadaki, Ph.D., Andreas F.H. Pfeiffer, M.D., J. Alfredo Martinez, Ph.D., Teodora Handjieva-Darlenska, M.D., Ph.D., Marie Kunešová, M.D., Ph.D., Mats Pihlsgård, Ph.D., Steen Stender, M.D., Ph.D., Claus Holst, Ph.D., Wim H.M. Saris, M.D., Ph.D., and Arne Astrup, M.D., Dr.Med.Sc. for the Diet, Obesity, and Genes (Diogenes) Project, 'Diets with High or Low Protein Content and Glycemic Index for Weight-Loss Maintenance', N Engl J Med 2010; 363:2102-2113 November 25, 2010

More

Obesity may interfere with Vitamin D absorption

The more obese a person is, the poorer his or her vitamin D status, a new study by a team of Norwegian researchers suggests. The study found an inverse relationship between excess pounds and an insufficient amount of vitamin D, which is critical to cell health, calcium absorption and proper immune function. Vitamin D deficiency can raise the risk for bone deterioration and certain types of cancer.

The researchers also suggest that overweight and obese people may have problems processing the vitamin properly.

The team noted that after the so-called “sunshine vitamin” is initially absorbed (through either sun exposure or the consumption of such foods as oily fish and fortified milk), the body must then convert it into a usable form, called 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. This conversion process, however, seems to be short-circuited among obese people, complicating efforts to gauge their true vitamin D health.

The findings are published in the January issue of the Journal of Nutrition.

To investigate the impact of obesity on vitamin D absorption, the team spent six years tracking 1,464 women and 315 men, with an average age of 49. Based on the participants' body mass index (BMI), an indicator of body fatness calculated from a persons weight and height, the average participant was deemed to be obese. About 11 percent were categorized as “morbidly obese.”

From the outset, overall vitamin D levels were found to be below the healthy range, the authors noted. By the end of the study, overall levels of vitamin D were found to have dropped off “significantly” while BMI readings rose by 5 percent.

The research team concluded that having a higher-than-normal weight, body fat and BMI was linked to a poorer vitamin D profile. For example, people with the lowest BMI readings had 14 percent higher vitamin D levels than those with the highest BMI readings. Because vitamin D levels did not correlate properly with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels (and in fact appeared to have an abnormal inverse relationship), the authors suggested that future efforts to explore vitamin D status among obese people should test for both measures of vitamin D health.

They also suggested that people who are overweight and obese might benefit from vitamin D supplementation and more exposure to sunlight.

SOURCE: Journal of Nutrition, news release, Dec. 14, 2010

More

Teen Nutrition, Health and Exercise

Teen Nutrition, Health and Exercise

fotolia_20436251_s

Dietitians and other health professionals have long recognized the importance of establishing healthful nutrition practices during teenage years. Diet and exercise patterns adopted during these prime developmental years set the stage for life-long habits that can mean the difference between vitality and infirmity in later years.

Your calorie needs vary depending on your growth rate, degree of physical maturation, body composition, and activity level. However, you do need extra nutrients to support the adolescent growth spurt, which, for girls, begins at ages 10 or 11, reaches its peak at age 12, and is completed by about age 15. In boys, it begins at 12 or 13 years of age, peaks at age 14, and ends by about age 19.

In addition to other nutrients, adequate amounts of iron and calcium are particularly important as your body undergoes this intensive growth period. From ages nine to 18 years, both males and females are encouraged to consume a calcium-rich diet (1,300 milligrams daily) in order to ensure adequate calcium deposits in the bones. This may help reduce the incidence of osteoporosis in later years. The recommended calcium intake can be achieved by getting at least three cups of fat-free or low-fat milk daily or the equivalent amount of low-fat yogurt and/or low-fat cheese. For those who don’t wish to consume dairy products, a variety of other calcium sources are available such as green, leafy vegetables, calcium-fortified soy products, and other calcium-fortified foods and beverages.

Meal Patterns

To meet energy needs, teenagers should eat at least three meals a day, beginning with breakfast. Studies show eating breakfast affects both cognitive and physical performance; that is, if you eat breakfast, you may be more alert in school and better able to learn and to perform sports or other physical activities.

Snacks also form an integral part of meal patterns for teenagers. You often cannot eat large quantities of food at one sitting and often feel hungry before the next regular mealtime.Healthy mid-morning and midafternoon snacks may be appropriate for you you.

Fast-growing, active teenagers may have tremendous energy needs. Although your regular meals can be substantial, you may need snacks to supply energy between meals and to meet your daily nutrient needs. If you are less active or who have already gone through the growth spurt, you may need to cut out the snacking.

Eating Disorders

Teenager’s food choices are often influenced by social pressure to achieve cultural ideals of thinness, gain peer acceptance, or assert independence from parental authority. These factors may increase your risk for developing eating disorders. An eating disorder is an emotional and physical problem that is associated with an obsession with food, body weight, or body shape. A teenager with an eating disorder diets, exercises, and/or eats excessively as a way of coping with the physical and emotional changes of adolescence. The three most common types of eating disorders are anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating. Each type has its own symptoms and diagnosis.

According to the National Mental Health Information Center, as many as 10 million girls and women and one million boys and men are struggling with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (a disorder causing people to severely limit their food intake) or bulimia (a disorder in which people binge and purge by vomiting or using laxatives). Both anorexia and bulimia can lead to convulsions, kidney failure, irregular heartbeats, osteoporosis, and dental erosion. Those suffering from compulsive overeating or binge-eating disorder are at risk for heart attack, developing high blood pressure and high cholesterol, kidney disease and/or failure, arthritis, bone deterioration, and stroke.

Seeing a dietitian like Nastaran for medical nutrition therapy as well as seeing a medical specialist for psychotherapy are two integral components in the treatment of eating disorders. These are such complex illnesses that the expertise of multidisciplinary healthcare professionals is required.

Overweight and Obesity

Adults are not alone in the concern about weight management. In addition to the increase in the prevalence of adults who are obese or overweight, adolescent and childhood obesity and overweight are also on the rise.

Data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004), indicate that 14 percent of two to five year olds and 17 percent of children and adolescents ages 12-19 years in the United States are overweight. The prevalence of overweight children and adolescents has quadrupled and tripled, respectively, in the last 30 years. Only a small percentage of overweight children may attribute their problem to endocrine disorder or other underlying physical problems. Overweight and obesity can be determined by Body Mass Index (BMI).

If you are overweight, you need to reduce the rate of weight gain while still allowing for growth and development. Overweight children and adolescents are more likely to be overweight or obese as adults. Therefore, health professionals emphasize healthful eating and the importance of physical activity as a life-long approach to weight management and to overall good health and quality of life. Before going on a diet, a healthcare provider and/or dietitian like Nastaran should always be consulted.

Physical Activity

Strong bones, good muscle tone, and lower risk of developing chronic diseases are some of the key benefits derived from regular physical activity. Furthermore, being physically active promotes psychological well-being and reduces feelings of depression and anxiety. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Division of Adolescent and School Health, 77 percent of children aged nine to 13 years participate in free-time physical activity and only 39 percent engage in organized physical activity. Among high school students, 63 percent participate in vigorous physical activity and just 25 percent engage in sufficient moderate physical activity. Twelve percent engage in little or no physical activity at all.

Participation in physical activity tends to decline as you get older. The long-term consequences of physical inactivity include an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, asthma, arthritis, and premature death. To maintain good health status you should engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week

Source: International Food Information Council

More

Vegetarians face increased risk of eating disorders

While vegetarians tend to eat healthier diets and are less likely than non-vegetarians to be overweight or obese, they may be at increased risk for binge eating with loss of control, and former vegetarians may be at increased risk for extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors, according to researchers at University of Minnesota, University of Texas and St. John's University.

The researchers analyzed vegetarianism, weight, dietary intake and weight-control behaviors data from a population-based study in Minnesota of more than 2,500 males and females between 15 and 23. They found vegetarians ate healthier diets than non-vegetarians when it came to fruits, vegetables and fat intake. Among young adults, current vegetarians were less likely to be overweight or obese.

However, adolescent and young adult vegetarians were also more likely to report binge eating with loss of control compared to non-vegetarians. Among adolescents, former vegetarians were more likely to engage in extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. And among young adults, former vegetarians were more likely to engage in extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors than people who either were currently vegetarians or had never followed a vegetarian eating plan.

Examples of extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors included “took diet pills,” “made myself vomit,” “used laxatives” and “used diuretics.”

The researchers conclude: “Adolescent and young adult vegetarians may experience the health benefits associated with increased fruit and vegetable intake and young adults attain the added benefit of decreased risk for overweight and obesity. However, vegetarians may be at increased risk for disordered eating behaviors, such as binge eating and unhealthful weight-control behaviors.

“Study results indicate that it would be beneficial for clinicians to ask adolescents and young adults about their current and former vegetarian status when assessing risk for disordered eating behaviors. Furthermore, when guiding adolescent and young adult vegetarians in proper nutrition and meal planning it may also be important to investigate an individual's motives for choosing a vegetarian diet.”

Source: Journal of the American Dietetic Association

More

Four steps for helping an overweight child

For many parents, dealing with an overweight child is a delicate issue. These four steps can put you and your child on the right path to a healthier lifestyle.

Be Supportive.

An important first step is to let your overweight child know she's OK, whatever her weight. A child's feelings about herself often reflect her parents' feelings about her. For example, if your child gets the message that you are unhappy with the way she looks, that impacts how she feels about herself. If you accept your child at any weight, and emphasize her strengths (e.g., good grades, musical talent, leadership skills), she learns how to feel good about herself. Let your child know she can talk openly with you and share her concerns about her weight. This issue may come up when she is shopping for clothes, participating in an athletic event or donning a bathing suit when it's time to hit the beach or pool. Your child probably knows better than anyone else that her weight is an issue. For that reason, she needs your support, acceptance and encouragement.

Focus On the Family.

Don't set your overweight child apart because of his weight or make a special issue out of it. Instead, make gradual, healthful changes in the whole family's physical activity and eating habits. Family involvement helps to teach everyone healthful habits and does not single out the overweight child as “being on a diet.” Changing the family environment provides your overweight child with the support he needs.

Increase Your Family's Physical Activity.

Regular physical activity, combined with good eating habits, is a must for promoting a healthy weight–and good health–among the whole family. Below are some simple ways to get the whole family moving:

  • Be a role model for your children. If your children see you enjoying regular physical activity, they're more likely to get active and stay active for life.
  • Plan family activities that are fun for everyone such as walking, dancing, biking or swimming. For example, schedule a walk with your family after dinner instead of watching TV. Make sure the activities you plan are done in a safe environment.
  • Be sensitive to your child's needs. Overweight children may feel uncomfortable about participating in certain activities. Help your child find physical activities he enjoys and that aren't embarrassing or too difficult.
  • Reduce the amount of time you and your family spend in sedentary activities such as watching TV or playing video games.
  • Find ways for you and your family to be more active throughout the day. For example, walk up the stairs instead of taking the elevator, do some stretching during a work or school break, or encourage your child to walk to and from school, if possible.
  • If your child likes structured sports activities or classes, sign him up and support his regular participation.

Teach Your Family Healthy Eating Habits Right from the Start.

Teaching good eating habits early and by example will help children develop a healthy attitude about food–that it's enjoyable, and required for energy to keep the body running right and to grow properly. Parents should provide children with the structure of regular meals and snacks, and choose the foods offered. Parents should allow children to choose what to eat from among the foods offered and how much.

To learn more about nutrition for children, make an appointment with Nastaran. See your doctor if you think your child has a serious weight problem.

More

Kids and Type 2 Diabetes

 

Type 2 Diabetes in Kids: Symptoms and Risk Factors

Type 2 diabetes is a condition that occurs when the body doesn't produce enough insulin or can't properly use the insulin that it produces. When the body can't respond normally to insulin, glucose builds up in the blood.

Type 2 diabetes sometimes is difficult to detect in children because symptoms may be mild or absent. However, symptoms still play a key role in diagnosing type 2 diabetes in children. These symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, tiredness or lack of energy, and acanthans nigricans (darkening of the skin between the fingers and toes and near the shoulder blades). If your child displays one of these symptoms, it doesn't necessarily mean he or she has type 2 diabetes, but a visit to the doctor is a good idea.

According to the ADA, risk factors for type 2 diabetes in children include

  • Being overweight—as many as 80 percent of children are overweight when diagnosed
  • Being older than 10 years of age and in middle-to-late puberty (although some children with type 2 diabetes are younger)
  • Having a family history of type 2 diabetes
  • Being a member of certain racial/ethnic groups 

Being Overweight: A Risk Your Family Can Avoid

The recent increase in type 2 diabetes among children parallels the rising number of overweight children. For that reason, some experts believe that being overweight is the most significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes in children. In a way, that's good news because being overweight is the one risk factor you and your family can take charge of.

A physically active lifestyle and good eating habits are central to preventing weight problems. If your child is already overweight, ask your child's doctor or Nastaran for advice on the best treatment plan.

More

Improving Patient Outcomes

mature male doctor writing something

Nastaran can translate scientific nutrition information into practical advice to help your patient make decisions about what to eat in order to achieve improved clinical and health outcomes (see Case studies). She can advise patients on a range of nutrition related conditions, including:

  • diabetes (type 1, type 2, gestational)
  • cardiovascular disease
  • gastrointestinal disorders (eg. coeliac disease, diverticulitis)
  • cancer
  • overweight and obesity
  • food allergy and intolerance
  • nutritional deficiencies/malnutrition
  • liver disease
  • polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • renal disease.
More