All Posts tagged obesity

Craving for alcohol linked to obesity

Addiction researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that a risk for alcoholism also may put individuals at risk for obesity. The researchers noted that the association between a family history of alcoholism and obesity risk has become more pronounced in recent years. Both men and women with such a family history were more likely to be obese in 2002 than members of that same high-risk group had been in 1992. “In addiction research, we often look at what we call cross-heritability, which addresses the question of whether the predisposition to one condition also might contribute to other conditions,” says first author Richard A. Grucza, PhD. “For example, alcoholism and drug abuse are cross-heritable. This new study demonstrates a cross-heritability between alcoholism and obesity, but it also says — and this is very important — that some of the risks must be a function of the environment. The environment is what changed between the 1990s and the 2000s. It wasn’t people’s genes.”

Obesity in the United States has doubled in recent decades from 15 percent of the population in the late 1970s to 33 percent in 2004. Obese people – those with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more – have an elevated risk for high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, stroke and certain cancers.

Reporting in the Archives of General Psychiatry, Grucza and his team say individuals with a family history of alcoholism, particularly women, have an elevated obesity risk. In addition, that risk seems to be growing. He speculates that may result from changes in the food we eat and the availability of more foods that interact with the same brain areas as addictive drugs. “Much of what we eat nowadays contains more calories than the food we ate in the 1970s and 1980s, but it also contains the sorts of calories — particularly a combination of sugar, salt and fat — that appeal to what are commonly called the reward centers in the brain,” says Grucza, an assistant professor of psychiatry. “Alcohol and drugs affect those same parts of the brain, and our thinking was that because the same brain structures are being stimulated, overconsumption of those foods might be greater in people with a predisposition to addiction.”

Grucza hypothesized that as Americans consumed more high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods, those with a genetic risk for addiction would face an elevated risk from because of the effects of those foods on the reward centers in the brain. His team analyzed data from two large alcoholism surveys from the last two decades. The National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was conducted in 2001 and 2002. Almost 80,000 people took part in the two surveys.

“We looked particularly at family history of alcoholism as a marker of risk,” Grucza explains. “And we found that in 2001 and 2002, women with that history were 49 percent more likely to be obese than those without a family history of alcoholism. We also noticed a relationship in men, but it was not as striking in men as in women.” Grucza says a possible explanation for obesity in those with a family history of alcoholism is that some individuals may substitute one addiction for another. After seeing a close relative deal with alcohol problems, a person may shy away from drinking, but high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods also can stimulate the reward centers in their brains and give them effects similar to what they might experience from alcohol.

“Ironically, people with alcoholism tend not to be obese,” Grucza says. “They tend to be malnourished, or at least under-nourished because many replace their food intake with alcohol. One might think that the excess calories associated with alcohol consumption could, in theory, contribute to obesity, but that’s not what we saw in these individuals.” Grucza says other variables, from smoking, to alcohol intake, to demographic factors like age and education levels don’t seem to explain the association between alcoholism risk and obesity. “It really does appear to be a change in the environment,” he says. “I would speculate, although I can’t really prove this, that a change in the food environment brought this association about. There is a whole slew of literature out there suggesting these hyper-palatable foods appeal to people with addictive tendencies, and I would guess that’s what we’re seeing in our study.” The results, he says, suggest there should be more cross-talk between alcohol and addiction researchers and those who study obesity. He says there may be some people for whom treating one of those disorders also might aid the other.

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Infant obesity widespread in the USA

A study led by Brian Moss of Wayne State University’s School of Social Work reveals that one third of infants in the U.S. are obese or at risk of obesity. In addition, of the 8,000 infants studied, those found to be obese at 9 months had a higher risk of being obese at 2 years. Other studies have revealed that Infant obesity increases the risk for later childhood obesity and could lead to other obesity-related health problems like heart disease, asthma, high blood pressure and cancer. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, childhood and infant obesity has more than tripled in the past 30 years.

Moss, in collaboration with William H. Yeaton from the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, published their analysis, “Young Children’s Weight Trajectories and Associated Risk Factors: Results from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B),” in the January/February 2011 issue of the American Journal of Health Promotion. The ECLS-B draws from a representative sample of American children born in 2001 with diverse socioeconomic and racial/ethnic backgrounds. It is one of the first studies to monitor weight status changes of a nationally representative sample of very young children.

For their study, Moss and Yeaton used results from ECLS-B to follow the trajectory of the infants’ weight status at 9 months and 2 years, then performed statistical analyses to examine whether weight persistence, loss or gain was linked to demographic characteristics such as sex, race/ethnicity, geographic region or socioeconomic status. Children above the 95th percentile on standard growth charts were considered to have infant obesity, children in the 85th to 95th percentile were considered at risk for obesity.

Some of their results show that:
• 31.9 percent of 9-month-olds were at risk or obese;
• 34.3 percent of 2-year-olds were obese or at risk for obesity;
• 17 percent of the infants were obese at 9 months, rising to 20 percent at 2 years;
• 44 percent of the infants who were obese at 9 months remained obese at 2 years;
• Hispanic and low-income children were at greater risk for weight status gain;
• Females and Asian/Pacific Islanders were at lower risk for undesirable weight changes;
• 40 percent of 2-year-olds from the lowest income homes were at risk or obese compared to 27 percent of those from the highest income homes.

“This study shows that a significant proportion of very young children in the United States is at risk or is obese,” said Moss. The team notes a consistent pattern of obesity starting early in life. “As obesity becomes an increasing public health concern, these findings will help guide health practitioners by targeting high risk populations and foster culturally sensitive interventions aimed at prevention and treatment of obesity,” Moss said.

“We are not saying that overweight babies are doomed to be obese adults. However, we have found evidence that being overweight at 9 months puts you on track for being overweight or obese later in childhood.”

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Obesity leads to Vitamin D deficiency

People who weigh more have lower circulating levels of Vitamin D according to recent research conducted at the Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Center in Oslo, Norway and published in the Journal of Nutrition. Lead researcher, Zoya Lagunova, MD and her colleagues measured the serum levels of Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2D in 1,779 patients at a Medical and Metabolic Lifestyle Management Clinic in Oslo, Norway. The associations among 1,25(OH)(2)D, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and body composition were analyzed. Lagunova noted that generally people with higher BMI had lower levels of Vitamin D. Age, season, and gender were also found to influence serum 1,25(OH)(2)D.

Vitamin D is not a true vitamin, but rather a vitamin-steroid thought to play a key role in the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis and other diseases. It is likely not coincidental that obesity is also a risk factor for many of these diseases. Vitamin D is vital to the regulation of calcium. Studies have shown that calcium deficiency increases the production of synthase, an enzyme that converts calories into fat. It has been shown that calcium deficiency can increase synthase production by up to 500 percent. Vitamin D has also been shown to play a role in the regulation of blood sugar levels; proper blood sugar regulation is vital to the maintenance of a healthy weight. Vitamin D is produced from sunlight and converted into various metabolites. It is stored in fat tissue. According to Lagunova, obese people may take in as much Vitamin D as other people; however, because it is stored in fat it may be less available. This may result in lower circulating levels of Vitamin D.

A previous study conducted by Shalamar Sibley, MD, MPH, an assistant professor of medicine at the University of Minnesota, showed that subjects who have higher levels of Vitamin D at the start of a weight loss diet lose more weight than those with lower levels. The study measured Vitamin D levels of 38 overweight men and women both before and after following an 11-week calorie-restricted diet. Vitamin D levels at the start of diet was an accurate predictor of weight loss…those with higher levels of Vitamin D lost more weight. It was found that for every nanogram increase in Vitamin D precursor, there was an 1/2 pound increase in weight loss.

Seventy-five percent or more of Americans, teenage and older, are Vitamin D deficient according to a recent study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine. According to the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index, 26.5% of American are obese. More research needs to be conducted into the exact role Vitamin D plays in obesity and weight loss and the possibility of increased Vitamin D consumption (through the form of supplementation and/or increased sun exposure) being a key factor to achieving a healthy weight.

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Weight loss without diet or exercise

Weight loss without diet or exercise

AN ad for La Parle Obesity Soap, absolutely guaranteed weight loss without diet or exercise. What on earth do you suppose the Norwood Chemical Company put in the soap? This obesity soap (used like ordinary soap) positively reduces fat without dieting or gymnastics. Absolutely harmless, never fails to reduce flesh when directions are followed. Maybe you eat it? Published in the July, 1903 issue of MODERN PRISCILLA.

Sources: MX, AP, Library of Congress, Magazine Art.org

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More risk factors linked with overweight

The link between obesity and cardiac disease is not merely anecdotal, there is proof for that. Now, there is further proof that even overweight causes a clustering of risk factors for cardio vascular abnormalities. A recent publication in Heart Asia, a British Medical Journal, has showed that there is not much difference between the cardio vascular risk factors in obese and overweight people. “The clutch of risk factors – glucose intolerance, hyper tension, high cholesterol – are all significantly higher among overweight and obese subjects than among normal subjects,” Vijay Viswanathan, MV Hospital for Diabetes and Prof. M.Viswanthan Diabetes Research Center said. He co-authored the article with Shabana Tharkar, also from the Indian hospital.

The study, conducted among two groups – 2021 subjects aged over 20 years, and 1289 subjects aged 8-19 years – indicated that even among overweight, 'non-obese' people, the presence of major cardiovascular risk factors was not significantly different. While the total diabetes prevalence among the obese population is 28.4 per cent, among the overweight population is 25 per cent. Again, with hypertension, the value for the obese group is 34.2 per cent, while for the overweight population it is 27.6 per cent. In contrast, the corresponding values are 16.2 per cent (diabetes) and 20.2 (hypertension).

Similarly, the study showed higher values for triglycerides and high HDL cholesterol for both these groups.

Overweight was defined as a Body Mass Index, equal to, or in excess of 25 kg/m2 and obesity, a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or above. Further worrisome is the increasing rate of overweight and obesity among both men and women from 1995 to 2008, across all age groups. Dr. Viswanathan added that this is the result of rapid urbanisation. “Obesity has already hit the Western world and it is time for Indians to wake up to the alarm bells,” according to the article. Results from previous studies show a lower risk of developing diabetes with just a five per cent initial reduction in weight, Dr. Viswanathan said.

The findings highlight the urgent need for framing direct and indirect strategies to control the rising levels of obesity in the population, in order to substantially reduce the country's non communicable diseases burden, he added. Regulating the diet, reducing intake of fast foods and high-calorie meals, and upping physical activity and exercise on a regular basis would go a long way in keeping weight under control, diabetologists advise.

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Obesity may interfere with Vitamin D absorption

The more obese a person is, the poorer his or her vitamin D status, a new study by a team of Norwegian researchers suggests. The study found an inverse relationship between excess pounds and an insufficient amount of vitamin D, which is critical to cell health, calcium absorption and proper immune function. Vitamin D deficiency can raise the risk for bone deterioration and certain types of cancer. The researchers also suggest that overweight and obese people may have problems processing the vitamin properly.

The team noted that after the so-called “sunshine vitamin” is initially absorbed (through either sun exposure or the consumption of such foods as oily fish and fortified milk), the body must then convert it into a usable form, called 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. This conversion process, however, seems to be short-circuited among obese people, complicating efforts to gauge their true vitamin D health.

The findings are published in the January issue of the Journal of Nutrition.

To investigate the impact of obesity on vitamin D absorption, the team spent six years tracking 1,464 women and 315 men, with an average age of 49. Based on the participants' body mass index (BMI), an indicator of body fatness calculated from a persons weight and height, the average participant was deemed to be obese. About 11 percent were categorized as “morbidly obese.”

From the outset, overall vitamin D levels were found to be below the healthy range, the authors noted. By the end of the study, overall levels of vitamin D were found to have dropped off “significantly” while BMI readings rose by 5 percent. The research team concluded that having a higher-than-normal weight, body fat and BMI was linked to a poorer vitamin D profile. For example, people with the lowest BMI readings had 14 percent higher vitamin D levels than those with the highest BMI readings. Because vitamin D levels did not correlate properly with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels (and in fact appeared to have an abnormal inverse relationship), the authors suggested that future efforts to explore vitamin D status among obese people should test for both measures of vitamin D health.

They also suggested that people who are overweight and obese might benefit from vitamin D supplementation and more exposure to sunlight.

SOURCE: Journal of Nutrition, news release, Dec. 14, 2010

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A reversal on carbs

A growing number of top nutritional scientists blame excessive carbohydrates — not fat — for America's ills. They say cutting carbohydrates is the key to reversing obesity, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. “Fat is not the problem,” says Dr. Walter Willett, chairman of the department of nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health. “If Americans could eliminate sugary beverages, potatoes, white bread, pasta, white rice and sugary snacks, we would wipe out almost all the problems we have with weight and diabetes and other metabolic diseases.”

It's a confusing message. For years we've been fed the line that eating fat would make us fat and lead to chronic illnesses. “Dietary fat used to be public enemy No. 1,” says Dr. Edward Saltzman, associate professor of nutrition and medicine at Tufts University. “Now a growing and convincing body of science is pointing the finger at carbs, especially those containing refined flour and sugar.”

Americans, on average, eat 250 to 300 grams of carbs a day, accounting for about 55% of their caloric intake. The most conservative recommendations say they should eat half that amount. Consumption of carbohydrates has increased over the years with the help of a 30-year-old, government-mandated message to cut fat.

And the nation's levels of obesity, Type 2 diabetes and heart disease have risen. “The country's big low-fat message backfired,” says Dr. Frank Hu, professor of nutrition and epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health. “The overemphasis on reducing fat caused the consumption of carbohydrates and sugar in our diets to soar. That shift may be linked to the biggest health problems in America today.”

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Tea can overcome the impact of fast food

The content of cholesterol and calories are pretty high in fast food is a cause of obesity and various metabolic disorders and heart. These impacts can be slightly reduced if balanced by drinking tea regularly.Obesity and metabolic disorders in people who are too frequently eat fast food due to the number of fat content and the use of oil in the food. While the threat to the heart is generally triggered by the use of salt, but also greatly affect cholesterol.

In a study conducted by experts from Kobe University, revealed that regular tea consumption may prevent damage to blood cells due to elevated levels of bad cholesterol. Consequently the risk for type 2 diabetes can be reduced.

A study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry that use 2 types of tea which is green tea and black tea. Both can memberikankan benefits, but black tea is said to be heart-protective effect. Benefits of tea that can be obtained according to these studies, among others, to prevent elevated levels of bad cholesterol, blood sugar and insulin resistance. The third condition is the main factor triggering type 2 diabetes caused by unhealthy eating patterns. “Drinking tea may help prevent obesity and blood fat levels settings. The problems are a result of high-fat diet,” says Dr. Carrie Ruxton of the Tea Advisory Panel as quoted from Dailymail, Sunday (19/12/2010).

 

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Vitamin D reduces obesity-induced uterine cancer

Georgetown University researchers suggest obese women can reduce their risk of endometrial cancer by taking vitamin D supplements.Scientists from Georgetown's Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center recently showed that 67 percent of obese mice fed a regular diet developed this cancer, versus only 25 percent of obese mice fed a vitamin D-supplemented diet. “In the obese mice, vitamin D offered a very strong, very significant protective effect,” says the study's lead investigator, professor of oncology Leena Hilakivi-Clarke. The findings, published in Cancer Prevention Research, also reported that vitamin D offers no protective effects for mice of normal weight. About 60 percent of mice predisposed to endometrial cancer developed it no matter what diet they were fed.

All of the mice in the study were genetically predisposed to develop endometrial cancer because they lacked one of two tumor suppressor genes. People without one of these genes are strongly predisposed to the cancer, and obesity adds a strong risk factor for the disease, researchers say. “Vitamin D has been shown to be helpful in a number of cancers, but for endometrial cancer, our study suggests it protects only against cancer that develops due to obesity,” Hilakivi-Clarke says. “Still, if these results are confirmed in women, use of vitamin D may be a wonderfully simple way to reduce endometrial cancer risk.”

Until further studies are conducted, she says women concerned about their risk of this disease may wish to take vitamin D supplements or spend a few more minutes each week in the sun, They also should strive to lose weight if they are carrying around too many pounds. The National Cancer Institute and the Department of Defense funded the research, which also included investigators from the National Cancer Institute, Northwestern University, Wake Forest University School of Medicine and Walter Reed Hospital. 

“But we really don't know why dietary vitamin D works so well in our obese mice,” Hilakivi-Clarke says. “We are currently investigating the mechanisms, and we are hopeful that we can find an answer.”

 

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Premenopausal Visceral Fat a Risk Factor for Osteoporosis

Young premenopausal women with excessive amounts of visceral fat are at increased risk for osteoporosis, according to new research presented at the Radiological Society of North America 96th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting. For years, it was believed that obese women had a lower risk of developing osteoporosis and that the mechanical loading from excess weight was good for their bones. It now appears that having too much fat, particularly deep abdominal fat, might be damaging to bone health, Miriam A. Bredella, MD, from Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, told meeting attendees. “With this ongoing obesity epidemic, we were actually seeing more and more young women breaking their forearms or their wrists, and the single biggest risk factor in this group was actually increased body weight,” she told Medscape Medical News. “We thought we should look take a closer look at whether obesity really did protect against osteoporosis.”

Dr. Bredella and her team studied 50 premenopausal women whose mean body mass index was 30 kg/m2 (range, 19 to 46). The women underwent assessment of L4 bone marrow fat with magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy as a measurement of lumbar bone density. In addition, abdominal subcutaneous, visceral, and total fat depots and trabecular bone mineral density of L4 were assessed using quantitative computed tomography. “Using MR spectroscopy was a new thing that we did in this study. MR spectroscopy is a technique that is more sophisticated than the regular bone density test. It does not involve radiation,” Dr. Bredella explained. “With this test, we could actually look inside the bones and see how much fat was in the bones.”

These examinations revealed an inverse association between visceral fat and bone mineral density (r = –0.31; P = .03) and between vertebral bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (r = –0.45; P = .001). The researchers also found that there was a positive correlation between bone marrow fat and visceral fat (r =.28; P = .04) that was independent of bone mineral density.

However, there was no significant correlation between either subcutaneous fat or total fat and bone marrow fat or bone mineral density. “The more deep belly fat you have, the more fat you have in your bones, and the more fat you have in the bones, the weaker they will be,” Dr. Bredella said. “All things being equal, if you have 2 obese women and one has a lot of deep belly fat and the other one has exactly the same weight but her fat is distributed more superficially around the hips and thighs, then the woman with the deep belly fat will have weaker bones.”

She suggested that belly fat weakens bones because this type of fat secretes adipokines, which weaken bones. “It is important for people to be aware that obesity is a risk factor for more than diabetes and cardiovascular disease,” she said. “Now they need to know that excess belly fat is a risk factor for bone loss.”

Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) 96th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting: Abstract SSJ17-05. Presented November 30, 2010.

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