According to a 2007 University of Toronto study published in the journal Diabetes Care, a quarter-cup of chia seeds supplies as much omega-3 fatty acid as a salmon fillet, 25 percent more dietary fiber than flaxseed, 30 percent more antioxidants than blueberries and as much calcium as three cups of milk.
The study, so far the only peer- reviewed one concerning the health claims of chia seeds, showed that diabetes patients reduced cardiovascular risks by ingesting chia seeds along with standard diabetes therapy.
Dr. Sheri Zidenberg-Cherr of the UC Davis nutrition department says chia seeds have a “nice nutritional profile” but hastens to add they are not the dietary cure-all some are trumpeting. “The redeeming qualities of it is omega-3s, specifically the lenlinic (acid) that's in there,” Zidenberg-Cherr says. “Because of that tie-in with heart disease and diabetes, I see potential for it as something that could be added to someone's diet if they're already following a healthy eating plan with the proper recommendations.”
At the very least, she adds, chia seeds can't hurt.
FRANCE'S most popular weight-loss regimes, including the number one Dukan diet, are ineffective and potentially dangerous to people's health, doctors have warned. The Agence Nationale de Sécurité Sanitaire has issued a warning over 14 of the most fashionable diet regimes in France. Researchers at the Institut Pasteur in Lille assessed each regime, including Atkins and Montignac, for its nutritional value and potential side-effects. Head of nutritional research Jean-Michel Lecerf, who led the study, said the diets disrupted the body's natural metabolism and led to serious nutritional imbalances.
In nearly all the diets, the protein content was typically much higher than the recommended daily intake, especially the Dukan diet, which is France's top-seller. Some of the diets contained 10 times less fibre than the recommended level and up to twice as much salt. They also lacked vital vitamins and minerals. The study also pointed to an increased risk of fractures and other bone problems, muscle wastage and cardiovascular problems in some of the regimes.
Dr Lecerf said that in 95 per cent of cases, people who follow a dietary regime regain weight as soon as they finish. In some instances, the weight they regain is greater than the amount lost. He said: “Each regime is less effective than the one before, and the weight gain afterwards is greater each time.” According to the study, about 70 per cent of people in France have followed some sort of weight-loss programme, many without consulting a doctor beforehand.
The Régime Dukan is the most popular diet in France at the moment. Like Atkins, it is high in protein in the initial “attack” phase, but low in fat. Next comes the “cruise” phase, with protein-only days and protein-and-veg days. Potatoes are banned, as are high-calorie vegetables such as peas, carrots and sweetcorn.
More than two million copies of the Dukan book Je ne sais pas maigrir have been sold in France.
Would I enjoy a career as a dietitian?
If you are interested in food, nutrition and health, enjoy communicating with people and have an aptitude for science – an exciting future lies ahead of you when you become an Accredited Practising Dietitian (APD).
Dietitians need to have a critical and enquiring mind, good organisational skills and initiative, good written and verbal communication skills, and be able to work effectively with people.
What do dietitians do?
Dietitians apply the art and science of human nutrition to help people understand food and health relationships and make dietary choices to get the most out of their lifestyle.
Dietitians are trained to:
- understand food science;
- interpret nutrition science;assess people's nutritional needs;
- advise on nutrition and diet for general good health or for special needs such as sport or medical conditions;
- implement and manage nutrition services and programs;
- teach others;
- undertake research; and
- develop nutrition communications, nutrition programs and policies.
What are my career options?
The diverse range of job opportunities and working conditions for dietitians will enable you to develop a wide variety of interests and skills and use them in many different situations.
- Patient care Working as part of a health care team in hospitals and nursing homes, dietitians are responsible for assessing the nutritional needs of patients, planning appropriate diets and educating patients and their families.
- Community nutrition and public health Dietitians are involved in nutrition and health education programs. This can be at the local community level or for the population at a national level. Dietitians working in public health also assist with health planning, setting nutritional standards, and developing and implementing nutrition policies.
- Food service and management Dietitians combine management skills and nutrition expertise when delivering food services in hospitals, nursing homes, meals on wheels, hospitality and catering. Dietitians also manage nutrition services and health programs.
- Consultancy/private practice Dietitians provide consultancy services to individuals, groups and organisations which include individual counselling, group programs, preventive health programs and nutrition education. Dietitians also prepare nutritional information for publication, work with the media and in public relations.
- Food industry Dietitians working in the food industry are involved in food regulatory issues (food law), food safety and quality systems, consumer and health professional education, nutrition research, product development, nutrition-related marketing and public relations.
- Research and teaching Dietitians work as part of research teams investigating nutrition and health issues and developing practical nutrition recommendations. Dietitians are also involved in training student dietitians, doctors and other health professionals.
- Other fields Dietitians are able to transfer their skills to other fields such as management, public relations, marketing, program management, communications, media, health promotion, policy development and information technology.
What are the salaries – public sector and private practice fees?
In the public healthcare sector dietitians' salaries are similar to other allied health professionals, nurses and teachers. To find out about salaries you should visit the website of the relevant State/Territory Departments of Health or obtain the relevant awards (eg Health Professionals), collective agreements or enterprise agreements in your State or Territory.
In other work areas dietitians' salaries reflect salaries for that industry, e.g. university lecturers. It is against the Trade Practices Act for DAA to set or recommend fees therefore dietitians in private practice or consulting do set their own fees. DAA does survey members on what fees are being charged and the survey results are provided as a guide to what you may expect to pay if consulting a dietitian.
What course do I select?
To become a dietitian you need to complete a tertiary level course accredited by DAA. Currently there are courses in ACT, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia. Courses vary depending on the university. Some examples of current courses include: a one to two year post-graduate diploma or master degree following a bachelor of science degree (including physiology and biochemistry), or a four year integrated undergraduate course. Courses cover food, nutrition, health and diet-related medical conditions, and skills in communication, counselling, education, health promotion, management, research and critical analysis of literature.
How will my expertise be recognised?
Accredited Practising Dietitians (APD) are recognised professionals who have the qualifications and expertise to provide expert nutrition and dietary advice. APDs need to meet detailed criteria developed by DAA. These include ongoing education to keep up to date with advances in health and food sciences and a commitment to a Code of Professional Conduct. All APDs can be identified by the APD title and logo, and are listed on a national APD register.
Source: Dietitians Association of Australia
Researchers analyzed 84 hours of primetime and 12 hours of Saturday morning broadcast television over a 28-day period in 2004. ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC were sampled on a rotating basis to develop a complete profile of each network. The Saturday-morning cartoon segment (from 8:00 am to 11:00 am) was included to capture food advertisements marketed primarily to children.
All 96 hours of observations were videotaped and reviewed later to identify food advertisements and specific food items being promoted. Only food items that were clearly promoted for sale during an advertisement were recorded. Each food item was then analyzed for nutritional content. Observed portion sizes were converted to the number of servings.
The article indicates that the observed food items fail to comply with Food Guide Pyramid recommendations in every food group except grains. The average observed food item contained excessive servings of sugars, fat, and meat and inadequate servings of dairy, fruit and vegetables. The situation was similar for essential nutrients, with the observed foods oversupplying eight nutrients: protein, selenium, sodium, niacin, total fat, saturated fat, thiamin and cholesterol. These same foods undersupplied 12 nutrients: iron, phosphorus, vitamin A, carbohydrates, calcium, vitamin E, magnesium, copper, potassium, pantothenic acid, fiber, and vitamin D.
The authors advocate nutritional warnings for imbalanced foods similar to those mandated on direct-to-consumer drug advertisements. They recommend investigating health promotion strategies that target consumers, the food industry, public media, and regulation focusing on a three-pronged approach.
“First, the public should be informed about the nature and extent of the bias in televised food advertisements. Educational efforts should identify the specific nutrients that tend to be oversupplied and undersupplied in advertised foods and should specify the single food items that surpass an entire day's worth of sugar and fat servings. Second, educational efforts should also provide consumers with skills for distinguishing balanced food selections from imbalanced food selections. For example, interactive websites could be developed that test a participant's ability to identify imbalanced food selections from a list of options. This type of game-based approach would likely appeal to youth and adults. Third, the public should be directed to established nutritional guidelines and other credible resources for making healthful food choices.”
When it comes to buying fruits and vegetables, many factors play a role in which types consumers choose, including nutritional value. Are there significant differences among fresh, frozen, canned or dried? The American Dietetic Association says no matter what form they take, fruits and vegetables are good-for-you foods that can be enjoyed at any time.
People with lactose intolerance do not produce enough of the enzyme lactase to break down lactose (the form of sugar naturally found in milk). Instead, when people with lactose intolerance ingest large amounts of dairy products, or foods or medicines containing lactose, lactose stays in the intestinal tract until it reaches the colon where it can cause gas, bloating, stomach cramps or diarrhea.
Last February, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) released a statement on lactose intolerance and health to provide health care providers, patients and the general public with the latest information on the topic.
“What many people fail to understand is that lactose intolerance is not an all-or-nothing situation,” says Susan Nitzke, professor of Nutritional Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and nutrition specialist with the University of Wisconsin-Extension.
Nitzke points out that many people with lactose intolerance can consume small amounts of lactose–for example, a half cup of milk or yogurt–without experiencing any symptoms. “This is especially true if the milk or other lactose-containing food is consumed with a meal,” she says.
Nitzke urges people to consult their doctor or a dietitian (like Nastaran) before making drastic dietary changes for suspected lactose intolerance. Your doctor may do a blood, breath or stool test to find out if lactose intolerance is the true cause of your digestive problems.
Milk and dairy foods provide many important nutrients. Milk is a well-known source of calcium and vitamin D. “Dairy products are also excellent sources of protein, potassium and many other vitamins and minerals,” says Mallory Koenings, a graduate student in the Department of Nutritional Sciences at UW-Madison.
Because dairy products contain so many important nutrients, even people who are lactose-intolerant are urged to consider alternatives within the milk food group, such as yogurt or lactose-free milk.
Nastaran can translate scientific nutrition information into practical advice to help your patient make decisions about what to eat in order to achieve improved clinical and health outcomes (see Case studies). She can advise patients on a range of nutrition related conditions, including:
diabetes (type 1, type 2, gestational)
gastrointestinal disorders (eg. coeliac disease, diverticulitis)
overweight and obesity
food allergy and intolerance
polycystic ovarian syndrome
- renal disease.
There are many situations where referral may be indicated including:
a new diagnosis requiring specific dietary modification (eg. diabetes, food allergy, abnormal blood lipids)
poor understanding of dietary management (eg. a patient who has had diabetes for years but has poor blood glucose control)
significant unintentional weight change (either weight loss or gain)
evidence of recent poor food intake, poor appetite or difficulty preparing or eating food (eg. poor dentition or social isolation)
deterioration of symptoms or change in care needs (especially for cancer or HIV patients or the elderly)
any nutritional deficiencies (eg. anaemia or iodine deficiency)
changes in medication prescribed that may affect dietary intake
alternative methods of feeding (eg. enteral)
texture modified food (dysphagic patients)
periodic review for chronic conditions.
When referring, it is useful to include relevant medical history, recent biochemical and metabolic test results, and details of any medications currently prescribed.
A referral to Nastaran Habibi should be made when your patient needs more intensive dietary, nutritional and lifestyle behavior education than you can provide in your office environment. Nastaran can help particularly when the patient is in the preparation, action or relapse stages of change.
A consultation generally includes a diet and lifestyle assessment, and nutrition education and counselling. Nastaran will review your patient’s medical and social status, including biochemistry and othe relevant test results, dietary and family history and home environment. In addition she will take anthropometric measurements and collect information on the patient’s individual food preferences and cultural, socio-economic and lifestyle needs. Taking into account the patient’s own goals, knowledge, skills and access to resources, Nastaran will custom design a program for your patient based on the principles of Medical Nutrition Therapy. She integrates self-management training regarding information on nutrient content, food choices, and meal preparation based on each patient’s particular and unique circumstances. Initial appointments are more than 1 hour.
What happens next:
- You will receive a formal report assessing your patient’s nutritional, physical activity and lifestyle status including Nastaran’s recommendations for improvement, possible barriers to success and guidelines for evaluating progress.
- During the 45-90 minute follow-up visits, Nastaran will review your patient’s progress, provide further education, encourage continued adherence to the plan and identify any obstacles to success.
In order for your patient to qualify for a Medicare rebate, referral must be through an Enhanced Care Plan. Referrals outside Medicare will still qualify for a Health Fund rebate.