Eating a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids appears to protect seniors against the onset of a serious eye disease known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a new analysis indicates.”Our study corroborates earlier findings that eating omega-3-rich fish and shellfish may protect against advanced AMD,” study lead author Sheila K. West, of the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore, said in a news release from the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
“While participants in all groups, including controls, averaged at least one serving of fish or shellfish per week, those who had advanced AMD were significantly less likely to consume high omega-3 fish and seafood,” she added.
The observations are published in the December issue of Ophthalmology.
West and her colleagues based their findings on a fresh analysis of a one-year dietary survey conducted in the early 1990s. The poll involved nearly 2,400 seniors between the ages of 65 and 84 living in Maryland's Eastern Shore region, where fish and shellfish are eaten routinely. After their food intake was assessed, participants underwent eye exams. About 450 had AMD, including 68 who had an advanced stage of the disease, which can lead to severe vision impairment or blindness. In the United States, AMD is the major cause of blindness in whites, according to background information in the news release.
Prior evidence suggested that dietary zinc is similarly protective against AMD, so the researchers looked to see if zinc consumption from a diet of oysters and crabs reduced risk of AMD, but no such association was seen. However, the study authors theorized that the low dietary zinc levels relative to zinc supplements could account for the absence of such a link.
Anand Swaroop, chief of the neurobiology, neuro-degeneration, and repair laboratory at the U.S. National Eye Institute, interpreted the findings with caution. “It does make huge sense theoretically,” he said. “Photoreceptors have a very high concentration of a specific type of fatty acids and lipids, relative to many other cell types. So it would make sense that omega-3 consumption would be beneficial. The theory is sound.”
“However, I wouldn't want people to start taking grams of omega-3 to protect against AMD based on this finding because I'm not really sure that this study has sufficient power to draw any conclusions,” Swaroop added. “This is just a one-year analysis and AMD is a long-term disease. The correlation is important, and it should be explored further. But we need larger studies with longer term follow-up before being able to properly assess the impact.”
SOURCE: Anand Swaroop, Ph.D senior investigator and chief of neurobiology, neurodegneration, and repair laboratory, U.S. National Eye Institute, Bethesda, Md.; American Academy of Ophthalmology, news release, Dec. 1, 2010
One article warns that the absence of major investments in new technology and prevention and treatment tools could make drug-resistant strains of TB the “dominant” form of TB over the coming decades, according to the news service (5/18). The article notes “that India and China had around 50 percent of the global MDR-TB burden, followed by Russia with 9 percent,” Reuters writes. The authors write, “The future possibility of strains that are totally resistant to all anti-tuberculosis drugs is not inconceivable.”
“In other studies in the series … scientists said the combined impact of new drugs, vaccines, and diagnostic tests could cut worldwide incidence of TB by 94 percent by 2050,” the news service reports. According to experts, only about a quarter of the funding needed for drug research and development is available.
“Development of new drugs for TB is lengthy, expensive, and risky, and the expected revenues are too small to justify commercial investment,” Zhenkun Ma of the Global Alliance for TB Drug Development and co-authors write in a paper. “New financing and market incentive mechanisms are needed.”
The journal also notes that “there are 11 potential TB vaccines being tested in human trials and up to 10 experimental medicines in the TB drug 'pipeline.' Since many drugs fail in late-stage trials, this handful of possibilities is unlikely to be enough,” Reuters reports (Kelland, 5/18).
The series also focused on the broader issues that contribute to the spread of TB, the Associated Press reports. “Experts said TB isn't only a medical problem, but is intertwined with poverty, as it spreads widely among people living in overcrowded, dirty places. They said TB programs need to go beyond health and include other sectors like housing, education and transportation,” the news service writes. Philip Stevens, a health policy expert at the International Policy Network, said the disease “cannot be tackled in isolation,” noting that the focus of control efforts should be on “economic growth, which is outside the control of the U.N.” (Cheng, 5/18).
“In the eighth and final paper … a call to action is made to a wide range of sectors to assist scale-up TB service delivery, research and control. The launch of The Lancet TB Observatory, which will monitor progress on key indicators on an ongoing basis, is also announced,” according to a Lancet press release. The Observatory, which is a collaboration between the Lancet, the Stop TB Parternship, the WHO and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, “will assess and monitor” TB research, financing and other information. In a comment discussing the Observatory, Lancet Editor-in-Chief Richard Horton and Executive Editor Pamela Das observe that currently “there is no formal mechanism to assess this information critically and independently. Nor is there any means to hold the various stakeholders in tuberculosis control to account” (5/18).
The series also includes comments about how to scale-up an integrated TB and HIV response, the burden of the disease in women and children and how migration patterns within and between countries contribute to the spread of TB.
Type 2 Diabetes in Kids: Symptoms and Risk Factors
Type 2 diabetes is a condition that occurs when the body doesn't produce enough insulin or can't properly use the insulin that it produces. When the body can't respond normally to insulin, glucose builds up in the blood.
Type 2 diabetes sometimes is difficult to detect in children because symptoms may be mild or absent. However, symptoms still play a key role in diagnosing type 2 diabetes in children. These symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, tiredness or lack of energy, and acanthans nigricans (darkening of the skin between the fingers and toes and near the shoulder blades). If your child displays one of these symptoms, it doesn't necessarily mean he or she has type 2 diabetes, but a visit to the doctor is a good idea.
According to the ADA, risk factors for type 2 diabetes in children include
- Being overweight—as many as 80 percent of children are overweight when diagnosed
- Being older than 10 years of age and in middle-to-late puberty (although some children with type 2 diabetes are younger)
- Having a family history of type 2 diabetes
- Being a member of certain racial/ethnic groups
Being Overweight: A Risk Your Family Can Avoid
The recent increase in type 2 diabetes among children parallels the rising number of overweight children. For that reason, some experts believe that being overweight is the most significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes in children. In a way, that's good news because being overweight is the one risk factor you and your family can take charge of.
A physically active lifestyle and good eating habits are central to preventing weight problems. If your child is already overweight, ask your child's doctor or Nastaran for advice on the best treatment plan.