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High fibre diet helps you live longer

Eating a diet rich in fibre has long been known to help keep your digestive tract working properly. It’s also thought to lower the risk of heart disease, some cancers and diabetes. Now, a new study suggests it could reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious and respiratory diseases. People who ate a high-fibre diet decreased their risk of dying over a nine year period compared to those who ate less fibre, according to a new study in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

The findings are based on a diet study from the National Institutes of Health and AARP, which included 219,123 men and 168,999 women ages 50 to 71 when the study began. Researchers from the National Cancer Institute examined food surveys completed by the participants in 1995 or 1996. After nine years about 11,000 people died and researchers used national records to determine the cause.

People who ate at least 26 grams per day were 22 percent less likely to die than those who consumed the least amount of fibre — about 13 grams per day or less. Men and women who consumed diets higher in fibre also had a reduced risk of cardiovascular, infectious and respiratory diseases, the study found. Getting fibre from grains seemed to have the biggest impact, the authors write.

The study has some limitations — mainly, people who ate high-fibre diets might also have been more likely to eat healthier diets overall, attributing to their longevity. Still, the study offers more evidence that fibre is certainly good for you. Federal dietary guidelines recommend people consume at least 14 grams of fibre per 1,000 calories, so about 28 grams for an average 2,000 calorie-per-day diet. But many experts say many people don’t get enough.

 

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Your Risk for Rheumatoid Arthritis

A popular pastime for many older people is to try and figure out their chances of getting one ailment or another. Mayo Clinic researchers have simplified it – they have figured out the lifetime risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis and six other autoimmune rheumatic diseases for both men and women. “We estimated the lifetime risk for rheumatic disease for both sexes, something that had not been done before — separately or collectively,” says Cynthia Crowson Mayo Clinic biostatistician and first author. “Prevalence and incidence rates existed, but prevalence figures underestimate individual risk and incidence rates express only a yearly estimate.”

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The researchers were looking for an accurate basis to offer an easy-to-understand average risk over a person’s lifetime, knowing that risk changes at almost every age. They used data from the Rochester Epidemiology Project, a long-term epidemiology resource based on patients in Olmsted County, Minn. The cohort of 1179, consisted of patients diagnosed between 1955 and 2007, allowed the team to extrapolate the nationwide estimates.

The adult lifetime risk in the United States of having some kind of inflammatory autoimmune disease is 8.4 percent for women and 5.1 percent for men. Based on year 2000 population figures, that means one woman in 12 and one man in 20 will develop one of the conditions in their lifetime. The authors consider that a substantial risk and say their findings should encourage more research on the value of early diagnosis and intervention for people with increased genetic risk of arthritis. They hope the new figures will help in counseling patients and in fundraising efforts to find improved treatments.

The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health.

 

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White rice increases diabetes risk

Japanese women who eat three or more bowls of rice a day face a 50 percent greater risk of developing diabetes than those who eat one bowl, according to research by the National Cancer Center and other institutions. Although it has long been known that consuming large amounts of carbohydrates can increase the risk of developing the disease, the study was the first of its kind to explore the connection between eating rice and developing diabetes.

Conducted over five years from the early 1990s, the study covered about 60,000 people aged 45 to 74 in Iwate, Nagano, Ibaraki, Okinawa and four other prefectures. Of the subjects, 1,103–625 men and 478 women–developed diabetes during the study period.

Women who ate three bowls of rice a day were 1.48 times more likely to develop diabetes than those who ate one serving daily, the study found. Eating four or more bowls of rice a day raised the risk of women developing diabetes to 1.65 times that of women who ate only one bowl of rice a day. However, among women who performed physical labor or exercised vigorously for at least one hour a day, there was no significant difference in their risk of developing diabetes regardless of whether they habitually gorged on the grain.

For men, there was less evidence of a connection between rice intake and diabetes risk.

But regardless of gender, the less physical exercise a person did, the higher their risk of developing the disease.

While it is possible that eating a lot of rice can contribute to the onset of diabetes in some women, the study produced no conclusive evidence that overindulging is a direct cause of diabetes. Researchers at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine who analyzed the study’s results said it was important to monitor rice intake as part of maintaining a balanced diet.

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Vitamin D reduces obesity-induced uterine cancer

Georgetown University researchers suggest obese women can reduce their risk of endometrial cancer by taking vitamin D supplements.Scientists from Georgetown's Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center recently showed that 67 percent of obese mice fed a regular diet developed this cancer, versus only 25 percent of obese mice fed a vitamin D-supplemented diet. “In the obese mice, vitamin D offered a very strong, very significant protective effect,” says the study's lead investigator, professor of oncology Leena Hilakivi-Clarke. The findings, published in Cancer Prevention Research, also reported that vitamin D offers no protective effects for mice of normal weight. About 60 percent of mice predisposed to endometrial cancer developed it no matter what diet they were fed.

All of the mice in the study were genetically predisposed to develop endometrial cancer because they lacked one of two tumor suppressor genes. People without one of these genes are strongly predisposed to the cancer, and obesity adds a strong risk factor for the disease, researchers say. “Vitamin D has been shown to be helpful in a number of cancers, but for endometrial cancer, our study suggests it protects only against cancer that develops due to obesity,” Hilakivi-Clarke says. “Still, if these results are confirmed in women, use of vitamin D may be a wonderfully simple way to reduce endometrial cancer risk.”

Until further studies are conducted, she says women concerned about their risk of this disease may wish to take vitamin D supplements or spend a few more minutes each week in the sun, They also should strive to lose weight if they are carrying around too many pounds. The National Cancer Institute and the Department of Defense funded the research, which also included investigators from the National Cancer Institute, Northwestern University, Wake Forest University School of Medicine and Walter Reed Hospital. 

“But we really don't know why dietary vitamin D works so well in our obese mice,” Hilakivi-Clarke says. “We are currently investigating the mechanisms, and we are hopeful that we can find an answer.”

 

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Milk and cheese reduce diabetes risk

Whole-fat dairy products containing high levels of a natural fatty acid might help lower the risk of type 2 diabetes, according to a recent research by U.S. scientists. A diet rich in milk, cheese, yogurt and butter contains trans-palmitoleic acid which is known to shield against insulin resistance and diabetes. “Our results demonstrate an inverse relationship between levels of trans-palmitoleate and metabolic risk factors and diabetes incidence,” Dariush Mozaffarian, MD, DrPH, of the Harvard School of Public Health, and coauthors wrote in conclusion. “The small differences in trans-palmitoleate levels raise questions about whether this is the active compound or a marker for some other, unknown protective constituent of dairy or other ruminant foods.”

The study
The study looked at 3,736 American seniors from Medicare eligibility lists aged 65 years or older. Physical tests, diagnostic testing, questionnaires on health status, and laboratory evaluation was conducted to evaluate the levels of 45 different fatty acids in the participants. They were further followed for 10 years with the help of annual clinic visits and interim telephone calls.

Study implications
Trans-palmitoleate was responsible for an average of 0.18 percent of total fatty acid levels, with whole-fat dairy consumption accounting for the highest trans-palmitoleatele proportions. Participants who had consumed high levels of whole-fat dairy products revealed higher levels of trans-palmitoleate acid in their blood three years later, Dariush and his co-authors reported in the December issue of the journal ‘Annals of Internal Medicine.’ Further, participants with the highest levels of the acid circulating in their blood faced two-third the risk of suffering from type 2 diabetes as compared to the ones with the lowest levels. Such people also had lesser fat on their bodies, higher proportions of good cholesterol and lower levels of C-reactive protein.

“This is an extremely strong protective effect, stronger than other things we know can be beneficial against diabetes,” said Gökhan Hotamisligil, the study’s senior author and chair of the department of genetics and complex diseases at Harvard School of Public Health. “The next step is to move forward with an intervention trial to see if there is therapeutic value in people,” he added in a statement.

The research has been funded by the U.S. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Institute of Health Office of Dietary Supplements and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

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Can Omega-3 foods prevent eye disease in seniors?

Eating a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids appears to protect seniors against the onset of a serious eye disease known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a new analysis indicates.”Our study corroborates earlier findings that eating omega-3-rich fish and shellfish may protect against advanced AMD,” study lead author Sheila K. West, of the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore, said in a news release from the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

“While participants in all groups, including controls, averaged at least one serving of fish or shellfish per week, those who had advanced AMD were significantly less likely to consume high omega-3 fish and seafood,” she added.

The observations are published in the December issue of Ophthalmology.

West and her colleagues based their findings on a fresh analysis of a one-year dietary survey conducted in the early 1990s. The poll involved nearly 2,400 seniors between the ages of 65 and 84 living in Maryland's Eastern Shore region, where fish and shellfish are eaten routinely. After their food intake was assessed, participants underwent eye exams. About 450 had AMD, including 68 who had an advanced stage of the disease, which can lead to severe vision impairment or blindness. In the United States, AMD is the major cause of blindness in whites, according to background information in the news release.

Prior evidence suggested that dietary zinc is similarly protective against AMD, so the researchers looked to see if zinc consumption from a diet of oysters and crabs reduced risk of AMD, but no such association was seen. However, the study authors theorized that the low dietary zinc levels relative to zinc supplements could account for the absence of such a link.

Anand Swaroop, chief of the neurobiology, neuro-degeneration, and repair laboratory at the U.S. National Eye Institute, interpreted the findings with caution. “It does make huge sense theoretically,” he said. “Photoreceptors have a very high concentration of a specific type of fatty acids and lipids, relative to many other cell types. So it would make sense that omega-3 consumption would be beneficial. The theory is sound.”

“However, I wouldn't want people to start taking grams of omega-3 to protect against AMD based on this finding because I'm not really sure that this study has sufficient power to draw any conclusions,” Swaroop added. “This is just a one-year analysis and AMD is a long-term disease. The correlation is important, and it should be explored further. But we need larger studies with longer term follow-up before being able to properly assess the impact.”

SOURCE: Anand Swaroop, Ph.D senior investigator and chief of neurobiology, neurodegneration, and repair laboratory, U.S. National Eye Institute, Bethesda, Md.; American Academy of Ophthalmology, news release, Dec. 1, 2010

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Breastfeeding reduces diabetes risk

Mothers who did not breastfeed their children have significantly higher rates of type 2 diabetes later in life than moms who breastfed, report University of Pittsburgh researchers in a study published in the September issue of the American Journal of Medicine.

“We have seen dramatic increases in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes over the last century,” said Eleanor Bimla Schwarz, MD, MS, assistant professor of medicine, epidemiology, and obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive sciences at the University of Pittsburgh. She also has a secondary appointment in epidemiology at the GSPH. “Diet and exercise are widely known to impact the risk of type 2 diabetes, but few people realize that breastfeeding also reduces mothers’ risk of developing the disease later in life by decreasing maternal belly fat.”

The study included 2,233 women between the ages of 40 and 78. Overall, 56 percent of mothers reported they had breastfed an infant for at least one month. Twenty-seven percent of mothers who did not breastfeed developed type 2 diabetes and were almost twice as likely to develop the disease as women who had breastfed or never given birth. In contrast, mothers who breastfed all of their children were no more likely to develop diabetes than women who never gave birth. These long-term differences were notable even after considering age, race, physical activity and tobacco and alcohol use.

“Our study provides another good reason to encourage women to breastfeed their infants, at least for the infant’s first month of life,” said Schwarz. “Clinicians need to consider women’s pregnancy and lactation history when advising women about their risk for developing type 2 diabetes.”

Schwarz also is an assistant investigator at the Magee-Womens Research Institute. Co-authors of the study include Jeanette Brown, MD, Jennifer M. Creasman, MPH, and David Thom, MD, PhD, University of California, San Francisco; Alison Stuebe, MD, MSc, University of North Carolina School of Medicine; Candace K. McClure, PhD, University of Pittsburgh; and Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, PhD, Kaiser Permanente, CA.

The research was funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the National Institute of Child Health and Development.

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Amount of Alcohol You Drink Greatly Affects Your Diet

According to a new study by researchers at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the USDA, conducted a study with 15,000 adults in the United States, and found that people who drink too many alcoholic beverages are more likely to eat less fruit and consume more calories from a combination of alcoholic beverages and foods high in unhealthy fats and sugar.

“Heavy drinking and dietary factors have independently been associated with cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and other chronic health problems,” said NIAAA Acting Director Kenneth R. Warren, Ph.D. “This finding raises questions about whether the combination of alcohol misuse and poor diet might interact to further increase health risks.”

“We found that as alcoholic beverage consumption increased, Healthy Eating Index scores decreased, an indication of poorer food choices,” said first author Rosalind A. Breslow, Ph.D., an epidemiologist in NIAAA's Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research.

A previous study by Dr. Breslow showed that the more alcohol people drink, the poorest quality diets they had. In addition to eating less fruits and vegetables, the researchers also found that increased alcoholic beverage consumption was associated with a decreased intake of whole grains and milk among men.

“Our findings underscore the importance of moderation for individuals who choose to consume alcoholic beverages, and a greater awareness of healthy food choices among such individuals,” says Dr. Breslow.

It is very important to control the amount of alcohol you consume. It could greatly affect you health.

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Folate Helps Repair Damage Due to Ageing

Since the 1960s, researchers have been studying how the water-soluble vitamin supports the healthy functioning of cells. They discovered that it's essential for cell division and replication, making it especially important for expectant mothers.

It's also important to proper replication of DNA and RNA — a lack of folate has been linked to genetic mutations that can lead to cancer.

Folate is commonly found in leafy green vegetables like spinach and turnip greens. Since 1998, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has mandated that many foods, such as rice, flour and cornmeal, be enriched with a synthetic folate known as folic acid.

While folate deficiency is no longer a problem in the U.S., it remains widespread in developing nations and much of Europe, where enriching grain products is not widely practiced.

This new research, funded by the National Science Foundation and originally sparked by funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, links folate to the production or repair of compounds called iron-sulfur clusters through a recently discovered intermediary protein called COG0354.

These clusters are part of the mechanism cells use to produce energy and carry out other vital reactions. But they are also sensitive to a byproduct of the energy-producing process: highly reactive oxygen-based molecules, some of which are called free radicals.

The oxidative stress caused when these molecules pollute a cell has been linked to cell death and aging, as well as to conditions such as atherosclerosis, Parkinson's disease, heart disease, Alzheimer's, fragile X syndrome and many more.

Examining the folate-iron-sulfur cluster link required the team to pull experience from not only UF's microbiology and cell science and food science and human nutrition departments, but also the McKnight Brain Institute and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.

Expertise from the latter two institutions was needed because the researchers used nuclear magnetic resonance analysis to observe folate interacting with COG0354 protein — molecular-scale activity that could otherwise only have been shown indirectly, said Arthur Edison, the NHMFL's director of chemistry and biology and an associate professor with UF's biochemistry and molecular biology department.

The researchers have found that COG0354 is present in creatures from each of the six kingdoms of life, from mice and plants to one-cell organisms that may predate bacteria.

The findings will open new avenues of study into the overall mechanism of oxidative stress repair, and may someday lead to new medicines. For now, the researchers emphasize that this is another example of the vitamin's importance in one's diet.

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