Eating a diet rich in fibre has long been known to help keep your digestive tract working properly. It’s also thought to lower the risk of heart disease, some cancers and diabetes. Now, a new study suggests it could reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious and respiratory diseases. People who ate a high-fibre diet decreased their risk of dying over a nine year period compared to those who ate less fibre, according to a new study in the Archives of Internal Medicine.
The findings are based on a diet study from the National Institutes of Health and AARP, which included 219,123 men and 168,999 women ages 50 to 71 when the study began. Researchers from the National Cancer Institute examined food surveys completed by the participants in 1995 or 1996. After nine years about 11,000 people died and researchers used national records to determine the cause.
People who ate at least 26 grams per day were 22 percent less likely to die than those who consumed the least amount of fibre — about 13 grams per day or less. Men and women who consumed diets higher in fibre also had a reduced risk of cardiovascular, infectious and respiratory diseases, the study found. Getting fibre from grains seemed to have the biggest impact, the authors write.
The study has some limitations — mainly, people who ate high-fibre diets might also have been more likely to eat healthier diets overall, attributing to their longevity. Still, the study offers more evidence that fibre is certainly good for you. Federal dietary guidelines recommend people consume at least 14 grams of fibre per 1,000 calories, so about 28 grams for an average 2,000 calorie-per-day diet. But many experts say many people don’t get enough.
Alzheimer’s disease, a major form of dementia, has no cure. Luckily, diet and lifestyle can be modified to reduce the risk. For instance, Mediterranean diet and physical activity may each independently reduce the risk of the condition, according to a study in the Aug 2009 issue of Journal of American Medical Association. Dr. N. Scarmeas and colleagues of Taub Institute for Research in Alzheimer’s Disease and the Aging Brain and Department of Neurology at Columbia University Medical Center found men and women those who adhered most closely to Mediterranean diet were 40 percent less likely to be diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease during a average of 5.4-year follow-up, compared to those who adhered to the diet least closely.
The researchers also found those who most actively engaged in physical activity were up to 33 percent less likely to be diagnosed with Alzheimer’s compared with those who were least active. For the study, Scarneas et al. followed 1880 community-dwelling elderly people who lived without dementia at baseline in New York for their dietary habits and physical activity.
Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet was assessed on a scale of 0-9, or trichotomized into low, middle, or high and dichotomized into low and high. Physical activity was trichotomized into no physical activity, some, and much and dichotomized into low and high. Neurological and neuropsychological measures were conducted about every 1.5 years from 1992 to 2006. During the 5.4-year follow-up, 282 incident cases of Alzheimer’s were identified.
Those who adhered to the Mediterranean diet with a high score were at 40 percent reduced risk of Alzheimer, compared to those on the diet with a low score. A Mediterranean diet with a middle score did not seem to help compared to a diet with a low score. Those who engaged in some physical activity or much physical activity were at a 25 percent or 33 percent reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease, respectively, compared with those who did no physical activity. Men and women who had neither followed Mediterranean diet nor much physical activity had an absolute Alzheimer’s risk of 19 percent. This is compared to 12 percent for those who followed both high scored Mediterranean diet and engaged in much physical activity – a difference of 45 percent.
The researchers concluded “both higher Mediterranean-type diet adherence and higher physical activity were independently associated with reduced risk for AD (Alzheimer’s disease).”
New research may help explain why multiple sclerosis rates have risen sharply in the U.S. and some other countries among women, while rates appear stable in men.The study could also broaden understanding of how environmental influences alter genes to cause a wide range of diseases. The causes of multiple sclerosis (MS) are not well understood, but experts have long suspected that environmental factors trigger the disease in people who are genetically susceptible. In the newly published study, researchers found that women with MS were more likely than men with MS to have a specific genetic mutation that has been linked to the disease.
Women were also more likely to pass the mutation to their daughters than their sons and more likely to share the MS-susceptibility gene with more distant female family members. If genes alone were involved, mothers would pass the MS-related gene to their sons as often as their daughters, said researcher George C. Ebers, MD, of the University of Oxford. Ebers’ research suggests that the ability of environmental factors to alter gene expression — a relatively new field of genetic study known as epigenetics — plays a key role in multiple sclerosis and that this role is gender-specific.
The theory is that environmental influences such as diet, smoking, stress, and even exposure to sunlight can change gene expression and this altered gene expression is passed on for a generation or two. “The idea that the environment would change genes was once thought to be ridiculous,” Ebers says. “Now it is looking like this is a much bigger influence on disease than we ever imagined.”
The study by Ebers and colleagues included 1,055 families with more than one person with MS. Close to 7,100 genes were tested, including around 2,100 from patients with the disease. The researchers were looking for MS-specific alterations in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene region. They found that women with MS were 1.4 times more likely than men with the disease to carry the gene variant linked to disease risk. A total of 919 women and 302 men had the variant in the MHC region, compared to 626 women and 280 men who did not have it.
The study appeared in the Jan. 18 issue of Neurology.
Epigenetics is not evolution. Genetic alterations linked to environmental assaults can be passed down for a generation or two, but DNA usually rights itself over time, Ebers says. “This may explain why we hardly ever see MS in families over more than three generations,” he says. Earlier studies by Ebers and colleagues suggest that vitamin D deficiency may be the environmental stressor that triggers the MS-linked gene alterations. Rates of the disease are highest among people living farthest from the equator, and there is widespread speculation that lack of vitamin D due to low sun exposure may explain this. Other than Ebers’ research team, Orhun Kantarci, MD, of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., is one of the few researches studying epigenetics as it relates to multiple sclerosis.
Kantarci calls the new research a potentially important piece of the puzzle to explain the gender difference in MS, but he adds that the research must be replicated. “This study provides more questions than answers, but it is very interesting,” he says. “We are learning that inheritance isn’t as simple as [Gregor] Mendel described.”
A popular pastime for many older people is to try and figure out their chances of getting one ailment or another. Mayo Clinic researchers have simplified it – they have figured out the lifetime risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis and six other autoimmune rheumatic diseases for both men and women. “We estimated the lifetime risk for rheumatic disease for both sexes, something that had not been done before — separately or collectively,” says Cynthia Crowson Mayo Clinic biostatistician and first author. “Prevalence and incidence rates existed, but prevalence figures underestimate individual risk and incidence rates express only a yearly estimate.”
The researchers were looking for an accurate basis to offer an easy-to-understand average risk over a person’s lifetime, knowing that risk changes at almost every age. They used data from the Rochester Epidemiology Project, a long-term epidemiology resource based on patients in Olmsted County, Minn. The cohort of 1179, consisted of patients diagnosed between 1955 and 2007, allowed the team to extrapolate the nationwide estimates.
The adult lifetime risk in the United States of having some kind of inflammatory autoimmune disease is 8.4 percent for women and 5.1 percent for men. Based on year 2000 population figures, that means one woman in 12 and one man in 20 will develop one of the conditions in their lifetime. The authors consider that a substantial risk and say their findings should encourage more research on the value of early diagnosis and intervention for people with increased genetic risk of arthritis. They hope the new figures will help in counseling patients and in fundraising efforts to find improved treatments.
The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health.
Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related deaths in men. Previous cell and animal research suggests that genistein, a potent soy isoflavone, may prevent the spread of prostate cancer. Now research reports that a genistein-derived drug may help prevent the spread of prostate cancer in men with prostate cancer.
The study, presented at the Ninth Annual American Association for Cancer Research Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research Conference, investigated the effect of the genistein-drug in men with localized prostate cancer. Researchers at the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University administered the genistein-drug once daily to 38 men with localized prostate cancer one month before prostate surgery.
The participant’s prostate cancer cells were analyzed after surgery. The researchers found an increased expression of genes that stop cancer cell spread (metastasis). Furthermore, there was a decreased expression of genes that enhance metastasis.
“The first step is to see if the drug has the effect that you want on the cells and the prostate, and the answer is ‘yes, it does,'” says lead researcher Raymond Bergan, MD, professor of hematology and oncology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, in a news release. “All therapies designed to stop cancer cell movement that have been tested to date in humans have basically failed have because they have been ineffective or toxic. If this drug can effectively stop prostate cancer from moving in the body, theoretically, a similar therapy could have the same effect on the cells of other cancers.”
About one in seven Britons feels under extreme stress, a survey suggests.We can reasonably conclude that these numbers will be similar right here in Australia. Experts say stress raises blood pressure, putting people at greater risk of stroke. A poor diet and lack of exercise also contribute to the chances of suffering a stroke. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. Over 143,579 people die each year from stroke in the United States. Stroke is the leading cause of serious, long-term disability in the United States. Each year, about 795,000 people suffer a stroke. About 600,000 of these are first attacks, and 185,000 are recurrent attacks. Almost one in five women and one in 10 men feel their stress levels are out of control, according to the poll of 2,000 people in Britain.
The survey, by the Stroke Association and the engineering company Siemens, found almost a fifth of people said they took no exercise. A similar number said they exercised for 30 minutes once a week. More than a quarter of people aged 45 to 54 said they never exercised, despite suffering the highest stress levels. Almost half said they were under more than “moderate stress”. Overall, 40 per cent of those surveyed said they were unaware of the link between exercise and lowering the risk of stroke.
James Beeby, of the Stroke Association, said: “The research is incredibly worrying and emphasises the need for people to be aware of the dangers of stroke. “It’s imperative that people take regular exercise and modify their diet to reduce the risk of suffering a stroke.” Siemens sponsors the British rowing team and provides some funding for the Stroke Association’s Stroke for Stroke campaign. Andreas Goss, the chief executive of Siemens in the UK, said: “Contrary to popular belief, stroke can affect people of any age.”
Originally Published in The Telegraph
Japanese women who eat three or more bowls of rice a day face a 50 percent greater risk of developing diabetes than those who eat one bowl, according to research by the National Cancer Center and other institutions. Although it has long been known that consuming large amounts of carbohydrates can increase the risk of developing the disease, the study was the first of its kind to explore the connection between eating rice and developing diabetes.
Conducted over five years from the early 1990s, the study covered about 60,000 people aged 45 to 74 in Iwate, Nagano, Ibaraki, Okinawa and four other prefectures. Of the subjects, 1,103–625 men and 478 women–developed diabetes during the study period.
Women who ate three bowls of rice a day were 1.48 times more likely to develop diabetes than those who ate one serving daily, the study found. Eating four or more bowls of rice a day raised the risk of women developing diabetes to 1.65 times that of women who ate only one bowl of rice a day. However, among women who performed physical labor or exercised vigorously for at least one hour a day, there was no significant difference in their risk of developing diabetes regardless of whether they habitually gorged on the grain.
For men, there was less evidence of a connection between rice intake and diabetes risk.
But regardless of gender, the less physical exercise a person did, the higher their risk of developing the disease.
While it is possible that eating a lot of rice can contribute to the onset of diabetes in some women, the study produced no conclusive evidence that overindulging is a direct cause of diabetes. Researchers at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine who analyzed the study’s results said it was important to monitor rice intake as part of maintaining a balanced diet.
A GOURMET meal may be as bad for you as a Big Mac, according to diabetes researchers who are alarmed at the rise in young men diagnosed with the disease.Corporate lunches and dinners at restaurants dishing up rich, fatty foods, coupled with sedentary working lives are being blamed for the trend. Dr Neale Cohen, of the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, said many patients were unaware meals at upmarket restaurants were often as high in fat, salt and sugar as fast food.
''Eating out is really code for eating badly,'' Dr Cohen said. ''Whether it's a fine French restaurant or McDonald's, it's the type of food that causes the problem.'' He said doctors at the institute are seeing men as young as 40 affected by type 2 diabetes, which is often triggered by obesity and linked to poor diet. ''Many of my patients will eat out three or four times a week for work and we are seeing 40-year-old businessmen who are in real trouble. To have diabetes at that age and otherwise be perfectly well with very little family history, is a really worrying thing.''
Dr Cohen recommends his patients only eat out once a week but said the ''MasterChef effect'' was encouraging people to re-create the elaborate dishes at home.
Steering clear of full-fat, fried, and processed foods is not just good for overall health, it could help prevent chronic lung conditions, a large UK study has revealed.
Led by Seif Shaheen, Professor of Respiratory Epidemiology at Barts and The London School of Medicine, the study – involving 1,551 men and 1,391 women with an average age of 66 – showed that those whose diet favoured fresh fruit and vegetables, oily fish and wholegrain products had far better lung function than those who chose a diet high in fat, sugar and processed food.
The diets of those involved were investigated to assess what kinds of food they consumed on a regular basis. Their lung function was also tested using a spirometer, a device which measures the amount of air that a person can blow out of their lungs in one second. This simple test illustrates how healthy the lungs are, and determines whether any blockage or obstruction exists in the airways. If the airways are obstructed, the person is diagnosed with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).
The study also revealed that the beneficial effects of the sensible diet were particularly strong in men who smoked.
Lung health in particular may be positively affected by a sensible diet because of the antioxidants contained in fruit and wholegrains, and the omega-3 fatty acids found in oily fish – that protect the lungs against the adverse effects of smoking.
Professor Shaheen said: “Whilst cessation of smoking is still the number one way to improve lung health, this study is important because it suggests that cases of COPD might be prevented if people, especially male smokers, ate more fruit and vegetables, oily fish and wholegrain cereals, and less white bread, sugar, full fat dairy products, fried food and processed meat. However, the only way to confirm this would be to carry out a randomised controlled trial.”
“However,” the researcher said, “there is a lack of clinical studies of the effect of vitamin D supplementation for preventing respiratory infections.”
For the current study, Laaksi's team randomly assigned 164 male military recruits to take either 400 international units (IU) of vitamin D or inactive placebo pills every day for six months — from October to March, covering the months when people's vitamin D stores typically decline and when respiratory infections typically peak.
At the end of the study, the researchers found no clear difference between the two groups in the average number of days missed from duty due to a respiratory infection — which included bronchitis, sinus infections, pneumonia, ear infections and sore throat.
On average, men who took vitamin D missed about two days from duty because of a respiratory infection, compared with three days in the placebo group. That difference was not significant in statistical terms.
However, men in the vitamin D group were more likely to have no days missed from work due to a respiratory illness.
Overall, 51 percent remained “healthy” throughout the six-month study, versus 36 percent of the placebo group, the researchers report.
The findings, Laaksi said, offer “some evidence” of a benefit from vitamin D against respiratory infections.
Still, the extent of the benefit was not clear. While recruits in the vitamin group were more likely to have no days missed from duty, they were no less likely to report having cold-like symptoms at some point during the study period.
Moreover, recent studies on the usefulness of vitamin D for warding off respiratory ills have come to conflicting conclusions.
A study of Japanese schoolchildren published earlier this year found that those given 1,200 IU of vitamin D each day during cold and flu season were less likely to contract influenza A. Of 167 children given the supplement, 18 developed the flu, compared with 31 of 167 children given placebo pills.
On the other hand, a recent study of 162 adults found that those who took 2,000 IU of vitamin D everyday for 12 weeks were no less likely to develop respiratory infections than those given placebo pills.
Laaksi said that larger clinical trials looking at different doses of vitamin D are still needed before the vitamin can be recommended for curbing the risk of respiratory infections.
In the U.S., health officials recommend that adults up to the age of 50 get 200 IU of vitamin D each day, while older adults should get 400 to 600 IU. The upper limit is currently set at 2,000 IU per day; higher intakes may raise the risks of side effects.
Symptoms of vitamin D toxicity are often vague and include nausea, vomiting, constipation, poor appetite and weight loss. Excessive vitamin D in the blood can also raise blood pressure or trigger heart rhythm abnormalities.
Some researchers believe that people need more vitamin D than is currently recommended, and that intakes above 2,000 IU per day are safe. However, exactly what the optimal vitamin D intake might be remains under debate.
Food sources of vitamin D include milk, breakfast cereals and orange juice fortified with vitamin D, as well as some fatty fish, like salmon and mackerel. Experts generally recommend vitamin pills for people who do not get enough of the vitamin from food.
SOURCE: Journal of Infectious Diseases