Children who are allergic to food are found to be suffering from anxiety and are increasingly more lonely; One allergic child out of five never attends peers’ parties, while one in four always brings along “safe” food. The burden of food allergies and the risk they can escalate to life-threatening diseases is particularly heavy on children, whose normally active and sociable lifestyle can be severely limited and frustrated by the effort to keep them away from potentially dangerous food.
According to a study presented at the 2011 Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Meeting by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), held Feb 17-19 in Venice, Italy, 23 percent of allergic children are no longer curious to try new food to vary their diet, considered too monotonous by most of them. A child out of ten also gives up crucial physical activity for fear of anaphylactic shock triggered by exercise.
“About 17 percent of allergic children, regardless of their age, never go to a party or a picnic with friends, while 24 percent are forced to bring along something to eat,” says Prof. Maria Antonella Muraro, Chair of the EAACI Meeting. The study, headed by Prof. Muraro, was carried out by the Center for the study and treatment of allergies and food intolerances at the hospital of the University of Padua, Italy on 107 young patients and their mothers.
“Also, 5 to 15 per cent of cases of anaphylactic shock can be triggered by physical activity following the consumption of small amounts of allergenic food that would otherwise be harmless, so one allergic child out of ten also stops every kind of exercise,” Prof. Muraro added. “Allergies are often downplayed as a minor problem, but the life of an allergic person can be hell. Allergic children show to be more afraid of being sick and a higher level of anxiety about food than children with diabetes. The constant alarm surrounding them is taking a toll on their development and well-being.”
Another worrisome problem adding to the poor quality of life of allergic patients, especially the younger ones, is the need to carry life-saving devices at all times, such as epinephrine auto-injectors, “loaded” with enough drug to prevent death in case of severe anaphylactic shock. They are easy to use, light to carry and discreet, but one out of three patients still leaves home without them.
“Within 8 or 10 minutes the shot reverses the symptoms, ranging from urticaria to respiratory distress, cardiovascular collapse and gastrointestinal problems including vomiting and diarrhoea,” explains Prof. Muraro. “It can cause minor side effects, such as irritability or tremors that end as soon as the adrenaline is processed by the body, generally within a couple of hours. Patients should not be scared, even those who have a heart disease: the possible side effects are negligible in comparison to the opportunity to save your life.”
Young premenopausal women with excessive amounts of visceral fat are at increased risk for osteoporosis, according to new research presented at the Radiological Society of North America 96th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting. For years, it was believed that obese women had a lower risk of developing osteoporosis and that the mechanical loading from excess weight was good for their bones. It now appears that having too much fat, particularly deep abdominal fat, might be damaging to bone health, Miriam A. Bredella, MD, from Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, told meeting attendees. “With this ongoing obesity epidemic, we were actually seeing more and more young women breaking their forearms or their wrists, and the single biggest risk factor in this group was actually increased body weight,” she told Medscape Medical News. “We thought we should look take a closer look at whether obesity really did protect against osteoporosis.”
Dr. Bredella and her team studied 50 premenopausal women whose mean body mass index was 30 kg/m2 (range, 19 to 46). The women underwent assessment of L4 bone marrow fat with magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy as a measurement of lumbar bone density. In addition, abdominal subcutaneous, visceral, and total fat depots and trabecular bone mineral density of L4 were assessed using quantitative computed tomography. “Using MR spectroscopy was a new thing that we did in this study. MR spectroscopy is a technique that is more sophisticated than the regular bone density test. It does not involve radiation,” Dr. Bredella explained. “With this test, we could actually look inside the bones and see how much fat was in the bones.”
These examinations revealed an inverse association between visceral fat and bone mineral density (r = –0.31; P = .03) and between vertebral bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (r = –0.45; P = .001). The researchers also found that there was a positive correlation between bone marrow fat and visceral fat (r =.28; P = .04) that was independent of bone mineral density.
However, there was no significant correlation between either subcutaneous fat or total fat and bone marrow fat or bone mineral density. “The more deep belly fat you have, the more fat you have in your bones, and the more fat you have in the bones, the weaker they will be,” Dr. Bredella said. “All things being equal, if you have 2 obese women and one has a lot of deep belly fat and the other one has exactly the same weight but her fat is distributed more superficially around the hips and thighs, then the woman with the deep belly fat will have weaker bones.”
She suggested that belly fat weakens bones because this type of fat secretes adipokines, which weaken bones. “It is important for people to be aware that obesity is a risk factor for more than diabetes and cardiovascular disease,” she said. “Now they need to know that excess belly fat is a risk factor for bone loss.”
Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) 96th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting: Abstract SSJ17-05. Presented November 30, 2010.