Excessive intake of sugar-sweetened beverages like soft drinks and fruit juices that offer no nutritional value other than calories to the diet of teenagers can elevate their risk of heart disease in later life, claims a new study. According to health experts, there is growing evidence of the link between excess sugar consumption among youngsters and a number of health conditions such as obesity, hypertension, elevated triglycerides that are considered markers for heart disease. Lead author of the study, Jean Welsh, post-doctoral fellow at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta stated, “We need to be aware of sugar consumption. “It’s a significant contributor of calories to our diet and there are these associations that may prove to be very negative. “Sugar-sweetened soft drinks and sodas are the major contributor of added sugar and are a major source of calories without other important nutrients. “Parents and adolescents need to become aware of the amount of added sugar they are consuming and be aware that there may be some negative health implications if not now, then down the line.”
According to the American Heart Association (AHA) recommendations, a teenager who requires 2,200 calories may have an upper limit of 150 calories from added sugar while someone with an energy requirement of 1,800 calories per day should limit added sugar to 100 calories. However, the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) of 2,157 teenagers aged 12 to 18 years found that the average teenager consumes close to 500 calories added sugars each day. “Adolescents are eating 20 per cent of their daily calories in sugars that provide few if any other nutrients,” said Jean Welsh.
In order to get an insight into the impact of high sugar consumption in adolescence on the risk of cardiovascular disease in later life the researchers studied 646 teenagers. For the purpose of the study, they analyzed the 24-hour dietary recall by teens with data from the US Department of Agriculture on sugar content in foods. It was noted that the teens’ average daily consumption of added sugars was three to five times higher that the limit acceptable by the AHA.
The study found, that teens who consumed 30 percent or more of total calories from added sugars exhibited lower levels of HDL, or “good” cholesterol and higher levels of triglycerides and LDL or “bad” cholesterol, compared to those who ate less than 10 percent of added sugar. In addition, it was observed that obese and overweight teenagers who consumed more sugar also had the most insulin resistance.
Although the study hints at a possible association between added sugar intake and poor cholesterol profiles as well as other heart disease risk factors, researchers feel there is need for more research to substantiate the findings. Welsh stated, “We need controlled studies to really understand the role of added sugars in cardiovascular disease. But it is important to be aware of the added sugar in the foods we all eat.”
The study is published in the American Heart Association (AHA) journal ‘Circulation.’
About a third of some of the most common forms of cancer could be prevented through healthy diet, physical fitness, and limiting alcohol intake, the American Institute for Cancer Research and the World Cancer Research Fund say in a new report. About 7.6 million people die from cancer every year worldwide, and 12.7 million new cases are diagnosed. According to the Union for International Cancer Control, a third of cancer cases could be cured through early diagnosis and treatment and 30% to 40% could be prevented. About 340,000 cases of cancer could be prevented annually in the U.S. if more people started eating a varied and healthy diet, started a regimen of physical activity, limited alcohol intake, and maintained a healthy weight, the new report says.
“Physical activity is recommended for people of all ages as a means to reduce risks for certain types of cancers and other non-communicable diseases,” says Tim Armstrong, MD, of the World Health Organization, says in a news release. “In order to improve their health and prevent several diseases, adults should do at least 150 minutes moderate physical activity throughout the week. This can be achieved by simply walking 30 minutes five times per week or by cycling to work daily.”
To reduce cancer risk, people also should quit smoking, avoid excessive sun exposure, and protect themselves against cancer-causing infections.
Tim Byers, MD, MPH, of the Colorado School of Public Health, says scientists urge Americans “to make the simple lifestyle changes of eating healthy food, getting regular physical activity, and maintaining a healthy weight to reduce cancer risk.” The World Cancer Declaration outlines 11 targets it says could be achieved by 2020 to fight cancer. These goals include: significant drops in global tobacco use, obesity, and alcohol intake; universal vaccination programs for hepatitis B and human papilloma virus (HPV); universal availability of effective pain medication; and efforts to dispel misconceptions about cancer. The health organizations say in a detailed report that the most common cancers in the U.S. and Britain are of the breast, colon/rectum, lung, and prostate.
The American Institute for Cancer Research recommends the following cancer-prevention steps.
- Limit consumption of calorie-dense foods, particularly processed foods high in added sugar, low in fiber, or high in fat.
- Avoid sugary drinks.
- Eat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and beans.
- Limit consumption of red meats such as beef, pork, and lamb, and avoid processed meats.
- Limit consumption of salty foods and foods processed with sodium.
- Dietary supplements for lowering cancer risk are not recommended.
- Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight.
- Be physically active for 30 minutes or more every day.
The new data come from an ongoing National Institutes of Health-AARP study and involved more than 300,000 participants. Researchers found that those study participants who reported eating the most processed meat had about a 30 percent greater risk of bladder cancer than those who ate the least.
What's more, those whose diets were highest in nitrites and nitrates (from processed meat as well as other sources) were about 33 percent more likely to develop bladder cancer than those whose diets contained the smallest amounts of these compounds.
Bladder cancer is currently the 10th most common cancer in the US, with over 70,000 cases diagnosed each year.
Link to Bladder Cancer Needs Confirmation; Link to Colorectal Cancer Convincing
The evidence that consumption of processed meat is linked to colorectal cancer was judged convincing by the independent expert panel behind the major AICR/WCRF report, Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective.
This same report, published in 2007, found the evidence linking red and processed meat to bladder cancer too sparse to make a judgment. Although this new study's findings need to be confirmed, it represents a major contribution to the scientific literature on diet's role in bladder cancer.
Higginbotham noted that the AICR/WCRF report's findings are continually updated; data from this and other studies will be added to AICR/WCRF's database and are scheduled to be reassessed by independent experts in the future.
Until that time, AICR reiterates that for people who are concerned about cancer, there is already good reason to limit consumption of red meat and avoid processed meat.
Source: American Institute for Cancer Research
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