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Diabetes Plus Depression

Women suffering from diabetes plus depression have a greater risk of dying, especially from heart disease, a new study suggests.In fact, women with both conditions have a twofold increased risk of death, researchers say. “People with both conditions are at very high risk of death,” said lead researcher Dr. Frank B. Hu, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. “Those are double whammies.” When people are afflicted by both diseases, these conditions can lead to a “vicious cycle,” Hu said. “People with diabetes are more likely to be depressed, because they are under long-term psychosocial stress, which is associated with diabetes complications.”

People with diabetes plus depression are less likely to take care of themselves and effectively manage their diabetes, he added. “That can lead to complications, which increase the risk of mortality.” Hu stressed that it is important to manage both the diabetes and the depression to lower the mortality risk. “It is possible that these two conditions not only influence each other biologically, but also behaviorally,” he said.

Type 2 diabetes plus depression are often related to unhealthy lifestyles, including smoking, poor diet and lack of exercise, according to the researchers. In addition, depression may trigger changes in the nervous system that adversely affect the heart, they said.

The report is published in the January issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

Commenting on the study, Dr. Luigi Meneghini, an associate professor of clinical medicine and director of the Eleanor and Joseph Kosow Diabetes Treatment Center at the Diabetes Research Institute of the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, said the findings were not surprising.

“The study highlights that there is a clear increase in risk to your health and to your life when you have a combination of diabetes and depression,” he said. Meneghini noted there are many diabetics with undiagnosed depression. “I am willing to bet that there are quite a number of patients with diabetes and depression walking around without a clear diagnosis.” Patients and doctors need to be more aware that depression is an issue, Meneghini added.

For the study, Hu’s team collected data on 78,282 women who were aged 54 to 79 in 2000 and who were participants in the Nurses’ Health Study. Over six years of follow-up, 4,654 women died, including 979 who died of cardiovascular disease, the investigators found. Women who had diabetes had about a 35 percent increased risk of dying, and those with depression had about a 44 percent increased risk, compared with women with neither condition, the researchers calculated. Those with both conditions had about twice the risk of dying, the study authors found.

When Hu’s team looked only at deaths from heart disease, they found that women with diabetes had a 67 percent increased risk of dying and those with depression had a 37 percent increased risk of death. But women who had both diabetes and depression had a 2.7-fold increased risk of dying from heart disease, the researchers noted.

In the United States, some 15 million people suffer from depression and 23.5 million have diabetes, the researchers say. Up to one-fourth of people with diabetes also experience depression, which is nearly twice as many as among people who don’t have diabetes, they added. “The combination of diabetes and depression needs to be addressed,” Meneghini concluded. He added that patients need to tell their doctors if they are feeling depressed, and doctors also need to be on the lookout for signs of depression in their diabetic patients.

SOURCES: HealthDay News; Frank B. Hu, M.D., Ph.D., professor, medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston; Luigi Meneghini, M.D., associate professor, clinical medicine and director, Eleanor and Joseph Kosow Diabetes Treatment Center, Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine; January 2011, Archives of General Psychiatry

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Allergy study highlights risks for children

A lack of testing for food allergies is putting children's health at risk and could lead to life threatening reactions, a study has found. The study, Adverse reactions to food in New Zealand children age 0-5 years, was published in the New Zealand Medical Journal. It looked at a cross-section of 110 children who had attended Plunket clinics. It found 44 had experienced an adverse reaction to food, but only four had been clinically evaluated. Those children were found to have adverse reactions to food allergens, including a life threatening peanut allergy. Two others had been hospitalised with systemic symptoms, but neither had undergone testing for food allergy. “If these children have food allergies, they remain at risk for continued and possibly severe reactions,” the study said.

Parents modifying children's diets or breastfeeding mothers cutting out food without advice from a physician or dietician could also have adverse affects, it said. “Failure to thrive is commonly seen in children experiencing FA (food allergy) as a result of multiple foods being removed from their diet.” The data indicated adverse reactions to food were a public health concern and may be under investigated — even when symptoms were severe, the study said.

“There is an urgent need to investigate the epidemiology, diagnosis, and prevention of FA (food allergy) in New Zealand to reduce morbidity, improve child health, and reduce the burden to health costs.” Thirty-three of the children were reported to have eczema. Ten had worsening symptoms two hours after eating, the study said. Symptoms improved in six of them with dietary changes. Doctors had prescribed topical therapy for 18 of those children with eczema, but symptoms had persisted.

“One possible explanation for this observation is undiagnosed FA (food allergy). Without testing, allergic triggers for eczema could not be identified in these participants.” Further investigation of food allergy as the cause of eczema was warranted, the study said.

Adverse reactions to food worldwide in children was an increasing concern and food allergy was as common in New Zealand as in other countries, the study said. The study was conducted by the Auckland District Health Board and led by Associate Professor Rohan Ameratunga and lead researcher Dr Christine Crooks. Allergy New Zealand chief executive Penny Jorgensen said the study was “really disturbing” because it highlighted that many children were not being assessed for food allergy. The risk was the potential for life-threatening reactions, she said.

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Some Kids Say Cartoon Endorsed Foods Taste Better

Do foods sold with cartoon characters on the package taste better? In a Yale study, children preferred cartoon-endorsed foods to identical products in different packages.
Forty New Haven, Conn., four- to six-year olds participated in the study. They tried two samples of three different snack foods—graham crackers, fruit snacks, and carrots. Unbeknownst to the children, products within each group were identical foods in different packaging.

When asked which of each sample tasted better, more than half of the children chose the snacks in cartoon-endorsed packaging. This number jumped to about 85 percent when asked which snacks they preferred.

Christina Roberto, a post-graduate student at Yale University and lead author of the study, says this is no accident. Companies use cartoons to push kids to choose their products. Seems innocent enough, right? Wrong. One of the major concerns is when companies use characters to promote junk food rather than health food, which can lead to weight problems and poorer nutrition.

“The food industry spends $1.6 billion on youth-targeted marketing and, of that, 13 percent is dedicated to character licensing and cross-promoting,” Roberto said. “For the most part, these foods are of poor nutritional quality.”

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Why a Restricted DIet Leads to Longer Lifespan

The research is being presented at the conference of the British Society for Research on Ageing (BSRA) in Newcastle. It was conducted by scientists at the BBSRC Centre for Integrated Systems Biology of Ageing and Nutrition (CISBAN) at Newcastle University.

Working with the theory that cell senescence – the point at which a cell can no longer replicate – is a major cause of ageing the researchers set out to investigate what effect a restricted diet had on this process. By looking at mice fed a restricted diet the team found that they had a reduced accumulation of senescent cells in their livers and intestines. Both organs are known to accumulate large numbers of these cells as animals age.

Alongside this the CISBAN scientists also found that the telomeres of the chromosomes of the mice on restricted diets were better maintained despite their ageing. Telomeres are the protective 'ends' of chromosomes that prevent errors, and therefore diseases, occurring as DNA replicates throughout an organisms lifetime but they are known to become 'eroded' over time.

The adult mice were fed a restricted diet for a short period of time demonstrating that it may not be necessary to follow a very low calorie diet for a lifetime to gain the benefits the scientists found.

Chunfang Wang, the lead researcher on this project at CISBAN, said: “Many people will have heard of the theory that eating a very low calorie diet can help to extend lifespan and there is a lot of evidence that this is true. However, we need a better understanding of what is actually happening in an organism on a restricted diet. Our research, which looked at parts of the body that easily show biological signs of ageing, suggests that a restricted diet can help to reduce the amount of cell senescence occurring and can reduce damage to protective telomeres. In turn this prevents the accumulation of damaging tissue oxidation which would normally lead to age-related disease.”

Professor Thomas von Zglinicki, who oversaw the research, said: “It's particularly exciting that our experiments found this effect on age-related senescent cells and loss of telomeres, even when food restriction was applied to animals in later life. We don't yet know if food restriction delays ageing in humans, and maybe we wouldn't want it. But at least we now know that interventions can work if started later. This proof of principle encourages us at CISBAN in our search for interventions that might in the foreseeable future be used to combat frailty in old patients.”

CISBAN is one of the six BBSRC Centres for Integrative Systems Biology. The centres represent a more than £40M investment by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) to support the development of systems biology in the UK. The centres are also supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

Systems biology uses the study of a whole, interconnected system – a cell, an organism or even an ecosystem – with computer modelling to better make the outputs of biology more useful to scientists, policymakers and industry.

Prof Douglas Kell, BBSRC Chief Executive and keynote speaker at the BSRA Conference, said: “As lifespan continues to extend in the developed world we face the challenge of increasing our 'healthspan', that is the years of our lives when we can expect to be healthy and free from serious or chronic illness. By using a systems biology approach to investigate the fundamental mechanisms that underpin the ageing process the CISBAN scientists are helping to find ways to keep more people living healthy, independent lives for longer.”

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Beetroot Juice May Benefit High Blood Pressure

Beetroot juice, a source of high nitrate levels, may help prevent high blood pressure, according to a study published in Hypertension. Nitrate is a compound that increases the amount of gas nitric oxide that circulates through the blood.In an effort to determine if beetroot juice contains enough nitrate to lower blood pressure, researchers had two groups of individuals either drink the juice or take nitrate capsules.

The results of the study showed that within 24 hours, the supplements and the juice had lowered the blood pressure of people in both groups. Furthermore, the investigators discovered that about 250 mL of beetroot juice was all that was needed to have the same effects on one's blood pressure as the nitrate capsules.

These findings showed that “beetroot and nitrate capsules are equally effective in lowering blood pressure, indicating that it is the nitrate content of beetroot juice that underlies its potential to reduce blood pressure,” said Amrita Ahluwalia, lead researcher of the study.

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