Tomatoes are rich in cell-protecting antioxidants. Antioxidants are known cancer-fighters, such as prostate and breast cancer. And now lycopene – one of the antioxidants found in tomatoes – is being linked to reduce risk of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease, usually developing in old age, especially in post-menopausal women.
But the new study at the University of Toronto in Canada, says drinking tomato juice may help stave off osteoporosis. Published in the journal Osteoporosis International, scientists claim consuming 30mg of lycopene from tomato juice (about two glasses) is enough to help prevent osteoporosis. For the research, experts restricted a group of post-menopausal women, ages 50 to 60, from consuming anything containing lycopene for one month, then the study participants were split into four groups for four months. Groups were given either a 15mg lycopene supplement, a glass of tomato juice naturally containing 15mg of lycopene, a gourmet tomato juice with 35mg of lycopene, or a placebo.
After four months, results showed supplementing with lycopene raised serum lycopene, compared to the placebo group. The women consuming lycopene had significantly increased antioxidant capacity, decreased oxidative stress, and decreased bone markers for osteoporosis.
New research into the health benefits of beetroot juice suggests it's not only athletes who can benefit from its performance enhancing properties – its physiological effects could help the elderly or people with heart or lung-conditions enjoy more active lives.
Beetroot juice has been one of the biggest stories in sports science over the past year after researchers at the University of Exeter found it enables people to exercise for up to 16% longer. The startling results have led to a host of athletes – from Premiership footballers to professional cyclists – looking into its potential uses. A new piece of research by the university in conjunction with the Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry has revealed the physiological effects of drinking beetroot juice could help a much wider range of people.
In the latest study, published in the Journal of Applied Physiology, the researchers looked at low intensity exercise and found that test subjects used less oxygen while walking – effectively reducing the effort it took to walk by 12%. Katie Lansley, a PhD student from the university's Sport and Health Sciences department and lead author of the study, said: “As you get older, or if you have conditions which affect your cardiovascular system, the amount of oxygen you can take in to use during exercise drops considerably. This means that, for some people, even simple tasks like walking may not be manageable. “What we've seen in this study is that beetroot juice can actually reduce the amount of oxygen you need to perform even low-intensity exercise. In principle, this effect could help people do things they wouldn't otherwise be able to do.”
When consumed, beetroot juice has two marked physiological effects. Firstly, it widens blood vessels, reducing blood pressure and allowing more blood flow. Secondly, it affects muscle tissue, reducing the amount of oxygen needed by muscles during activity. The combined effects have a significant impact on performing physical tasks, whether it involves low-intensity or high-intensity effort. So far the research on the impacts of beetroot juice has only been carried out on younger people who are in good health, but the researchers believe there is no reason why the effects of beetroot juice wouldn't help others. “While we haven't yet measured the effects on the elderly or those with heart or lung conditions, there is the potential for a positive impact in these populations which we intend to go on and investigate further,” Katie Lansley added.
Beetroot juice contains high levels of nitrate. The latest study has proved that this is the key ingredient which causes the increase in performance, rather than any other component of the beetroot juice. Professor Andy Jones, the senior scientist on the study and a pioneer of research into beetroot juice, said: “In this study, we were able to use – for the first time – both normal beetroot juice and beetroot juice with the nitrate filtered out. Test subjects didn't know which one they were getting. The drinks both looked and tasted exactly the same. Each time the normal, nitrate-rich juice was used, we saw a marked improvement in performance which wasn't there with the filtered juice – so we know the nitrate is the active ingredient.”
A new study finds that drinking orange juice, soda and other beverages high in the sugar fructose could increase the small risk that middle-age and elderly women have of developing gout. Gout is a painful form of arthritis caused by too much uric acid in the blood. For women in the study who drank two or more servings of these beverages per day, the risk of gout was more than double that for women who drank sugary sodas and juices less than once per month. Because gout is relatively rare among women, the drinks probably contribute only moderately to a woman's chances of developing it. Still, this is the first study linking sodas and sweetened fruit juices to women's gout risk. Previous research found such a link for men.
The study will be published in the Nov. 24 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, and is being presented today (Nov. 10) at the American College of Rheumatology annual scientific meeting.
Gout occurs when levels of uric acid in the blood become too high, and uric acid crystallizes around the joints, leading to inflammation, swelling and pain. Foods than can increase the levels of uric acid in the blood include organ meats (such as kidneys and livers), asparagus and mushrooms, according to the Mayo Clinic. Fructose is also known to increase blood uric acid levels, the researchers said. While gout is not common in the United States, the rate of incidences has more than doubled over a 20-year period, from 16 cases per 100,000 Americans in 1977 to 42 per 100,000 in 1996. Over this period, the researchers noted, the population also consumed increasing amounts of soda and other drinks sweetened with fructose.
The new study followed 78,906 women for 22 years, from 1984 to 2006, as part of the Nurses' Health Study. At the beginning of the study, none of the women had gout. By the end, 778 had developed it. Women who drank one serving of soda per day were 1.74 times more likely to develop gout than those who drank less than one serving per month. Those who drank two or more servings per day were 2.4 times more likely to develop gout. Drinking two or more servings of soda per day caused an additional 68 cases of gout per 100,000 women per year, compared with drinking less than one serving of soda per month, the researchers said. Drinking orange juice also increased the risk. Women who drank one serving of orange juice per day were 1.41 times more likely to develop gout, and those who drank two or more servings were 2.4 times more likely to report gout.
Lifestyle and diet
The rise in gout cases is most likely due to changes in lifestyle and diet and an increase in conditions associated with gout, such as metabolic syndrome, said study researcher Dr. Hyon K. Choi of the Boston University School of Medicine. The results held even after the researchers took into account factors that could have influenced the findings, such as age, body mass index and whether the women had gone through menopause, Choi said.
The findings suggest diets to prevent gout should reduce fructose intake, the researchers said.
The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
Beetroot juice, a source of high nitrate levels, may help prevent high blood pressure, according to a study published in Hypertension. Nitrate is a compound that increases the amount of gas nitric oxide that circulates through the blood.In an effort to determine if beetroot juice contains enough nitrate to lower blood pressure, researchers had two groups of individuals either drink the juice or take nitrate capsules.
The results of the study showed that within 24 hours, the supplements and the juice had lowered the blood pressure of people in both groups. Furthermore, the investigators discovered that about 250 mL of beetroot juice was all that was needed to have the same effects on one's blood pressure as the nitrate capsules.
These findings showed that “beetroot and nitrate capsules are equally effective in lowering blood pressure, indicating that it is the nitrate content of beetroot juice that underlies its potential to reduce blood pressure,” said Amrita Ahluwalia, lead researcher of the study.
Let’s look at some examples:
You eat 2 waffles for breakfast
- One serving from the Food Guide Pyramid is equal to 1 waffle.
- So that means if you ate 2 waffles, you also ate 2 servings from the grains group.
Here are some other common portions and their respective Food Guide Pyramid serving sizes:
|Common portions that people eat
||Food Guide Pyramid Serving Size
||Total servings per Food Guide Pyramid
||= 2 servings
|1 English Muffin
||½ English muffin
||= 2 servings
|1 Hamburger bun
||= 2 servings
|1 cup cooked rice
||½ cup cooked rice
||= 2 servings
|1 cups cooked pasta
||½ cup cooked pasta
||= 2 servings
In each food group, look at these different Food Guide Pyramid examples indicating 1 serving each. How do these compare with what your portions look like?
- 1 slice bread, waffle or pancake
- ½ bagel, hamburger bun, or English muffin
- ½ cup cooked rice, pasta or cereal
- 1 cup ready to eat cereal
- ¾ cup (6 fluid ounces) 100% vegetable juice
- 1 cup raw, leafy vegetables or salad
- ½ cup cooked or canned vegetables
- 1 medium apple, orange or banana
- ½ cup fruit (canned, cooked or raw)
- ½ cup (4 fluid ounces) 100% fruit juice
- ¼ cup dried fruit (raisins, apricots or prunes)
- 1 cup milk or yogurt
- 2 ounces processed cheese (American)
- 1 ½ ounces natural cheese (cheddar)
- Meat and Beans
- 1 tablespoons of peanut butter counts as 1 ounce
- ¼ cup nuts or 20-24 almonds
- 1 medium size egg
- 2-3 ounces of poultry, meat or fish (2-3 servings)
- ¼ cup of beans
Tips on how to visually estimate 1 serving size
|1 oz. bread or 1 slice of bread
|10 French fries
||Deck of cards
|½ cup cooked rice or pasta
|1 cup raw leafy vegetables
|½ cup vegetables
|1 medium fruit such as an apple or an orange
||Tennis ball or the size of your fist
|¾ cup juice
||6 ounce juice can (1 ½ servings)
|½ cup chopped or canned fruit
|Milk and Milk Products Group
|1 ounce cheese
||Pair of dice or the size of your thumb
|1 ½ ounces cheddar cheese
||2 (9-volt) batteries
|1 cup of milk
||8 ounce carton of milk
|8 ounces yogurt
||Baseball or tennis ball
|Meat & Beans Group
|3 ounces of meat, fish or poultry
||Deck of cards (3 servings)
|2 tablespoons of peanut butter
||Ping–pong ball (2 servings)
|½ cup cooked beans
||Baseball (2 servings)
Try these ideas to help control portions at home:
- When your child is hungry and looking for a snack take the amount of food that is equal to one serving (refer to the Nutrition Facts label) and have your child eat it off a plate instead of eating it out of the box or bag.
- Don’t be tempted to finish off leftover dinner the next day. Freeze leftovers as single servings so that you can pull it out of the freezer when you need a quick, healthy meal for your family.
- Be prepared and have emergency snacks on hand if your family is running late and needs a quick snack. Make your own snack bags for traveling by reading the Nutrition Facts label and placing a single serving size into plastic bags.
- Have your child measure out a single serving of food before sitting in front of the television or doing other activities that can distract him/her from realizing how much food is being consumed. This way your child will know exactly how much he or she is eating!
Serving sizes on food labels are sometimes different from the Food Guide Pyramid servings. For example, the serving size for beverages is measured in cups or fluid ounces. Whether it is milk, juice, or soda the nutrition facts labeling guidelines is 1 cup or 8 fluid ounces, which equals 1 serving size. However, the Food Guide Pyramid serving size for milk is 1 cup, but for juice it is ¾ cup.
So, even though the amount of 1 serving on nutrition facts labels and the Food Guide Pyramid may be slightly different it is still a great tool to help you and your child decide if you are getting enough or too much food each day. Encourage your child to get familiar with the serving sizes because smart eating is an essential part of growing and staying healthy!
Source: Nourish Interactive.
Apples could become the next fish when it comes to boosting health.
In March 2005 Cornell University scientists discovered that phytochemicals in apples could help prevent breast cancer, found in a mouse study. Study author Rui Hai Lui concluded eating apples “may be an effective strategy for cancer protection” Studies also suggest that apples can thwart lung, prostate, pancreatic and other digestive cancers.
Quercitin found in apples might even prevent lung damage in smokers, found by UCLA researchers and published May 2008. Dr. Zuo-Feng Zhang, a researcher at UCLA's Jonsson Cancer Center and a professor of public health and epidemiology. “The findings were especially interesting because tobacco smoking is the major risk factor for lung cancer. The naturally occurring chemicals may be working to reduce the damage caused by smoking.”
The health benefits of apples also extend to the brain. A study underwritten by the apple industry found that mice with Alzheimer's disease and even normal mice experienced memory improvement from receiving apple juice concentrate in their water. Two to 3 glasses of apple juice a day should be enough and it's important to combine apples with an otherwise balanced diet.
Professor Thomas Shea who conducted the study starting in 2002 says mice that drank too much apple juice “became bloated and lethargic”, negating the positive effects of apple juice for boosting memory.
Pectin in apples and other fruit may play a key role in lowering bad cholesterol, shown in several observational studies. Apples are also high in soluble fiber. The American Heart Association recommends soluble and insoluble fiber intake daily as part of a heart healthy diet. Apple pulp is a soluble and apple skin is an insoluble fiber. The Apple Association also published a study May 2008 suggesting that apple juice antioxidants might prevent atherosclerosis, found in a rodent study and published in Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. Additional benefits include reducing the chances of metabolic syndrome that leads to diabetes and heart disease, reported by the U.S. Apple Association.
This year, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign published findings that soluble fiber increased production of the anti-inflammatory protein called interleukin-4. The amount of soluble fiber needed to keep infection at bay – for instance from eating apples – is obtainable and not pharmaceutical. For the study researchers used citrus based pectin.
According to Gregory Freund, a professor in the University of Illinois' College of Medicine and a faculty member in the College of Agriculture, Consumer and Environmental Sciences' Division of Nutritional Sciences, “It's possible that supplementing a high-fat diet with soluble fiber could reduce the negative effects of a high fat diet, “even delaying the onset of diabetes.” Apples are an excellent source of soluble and insoluble fiber, making them an especially appealing addition to the diet.
Apples are not a panacea that can fight disease, but they do have a wide array of health benefit. It's important to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables throughout the day. Added to a balanced, nutritious and heart healthy diet, apples might rival fish for their health benefits.