All Posts tagged investigators

Vegetarian diet helps with kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients who consume a diet high in vegetables rather than meat may prevent the accumulation of toxic phosphorus levels, according to a study published online Dec. 23 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.Sharon M. Moe, M.D., of the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis, and colleagues conducted a crossover trial in nine patients with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 32 ml/min to compare vegetarian and meat diets containing equivalent nutrients prepared by clinical research staff.

The investigators found that one week of a vegetarian diet led to lower serum phosphorus levels, decreased phosphorus excretion in the urine, and reduced fibroblast growth factor-23 levels compared with a meat diet, despite equivalent protein and phosphorus concentrations in the two diets.

“In summary, this study demonstrates that the source of protein has a significant effect on phosphorus homeostasis in patients with CKD. Therefore, dietary counseling of patients with CKD must include information on not only the amount of phosphate but also the source of protein from which the phosphate derives,” the authors write.

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Tomatoes may reduce prostate cancer

Choosing to eat tomatoes not only reduces a man’s risk of developing prostate cancer, but also shrinks the existing tumors, claims a new Italian study. Researchers theorize that the secret may lie in lycopene, the powerful anti-oxidant that makes tomatoes red. Lycopene helps neutralize harmful free radicals that are implicated in various kinds of cancer, cardiovascular problems, macular degeneration and other age-related illnesses. However, the benefit was strongest for prostate cancer.

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In a bid to assess the prostate cancer-fighting properties of tomatoes, the researchers at the University of Naples conducted an experiment on rodents. For the purpose of the study, the researchers fed laboratory rats implanted with prostate cancer cells, with either a normal diet or that containing 10 percent tomato powder. The tomato powders were made from whole foods so the effects of eating the entire vegetable could be assessed as a nutritional supplement. The investigators noted that the animals fed on tomato powder exhibited slow progression of the disease and also had lower rates of prostate cancer. In contrast, those fed on a normal diet displayed no such benefits.

Joanna Owens, from Cancer Research Britain disagrees stated, “This study doesn’t provide enough evidence that tomatoes can reduce the risk of prostate cancer or prevent progression of the disease in humans. “Other risks such as age, family history and ethnicity are likely to play a much greater role than diet alone.” The study has been published in the journal ‘Cancer Prevention Research.’

 

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Cause of Osteoporosis in Celiac patients

People with celiac disease may develop osteoporosis due to immune-system attacks on bone tissue (N Engl J Med. 2009; 361:1459-1465). Although osteoporosis is a known complication of celiac disease, scientists have always believed that it occurred because celiac patients cannot properly absorb calcium and vitamin D from their diet and were therefore unable to maintain healthy bone tissue.

At the heart of this development is the protein osteoprotegerin, which plays a crucial role in maintaining bone health by controlling the rate at which bone tissue is removed. Researchers from the United Kingdom's University of Edinburgh and University of Liverpool detected autoantibodies against osteoprotegerin in several patients with celiac disease.

“Such autoantibodies may be associated with the development of high-turnover osteoporosis, but whether autoantibodies against osteoprotegerin commonly contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in patients with celiac disease remains to be determined,” the investigators conclude.

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Beetroot Juice May Benefit High Blood Pressure

Beetroot juice, a source of high nitrate levels, may help prevent high blood pressure, according to a study published in Hypertension. Nitrate is a compound that increases the amount of gas nitric oxide that circulates through the blood.In an effort to determine if beetroot juice contains enough nitrate to lower blood pressure, researchers had two groups of individuals either drink the juice or take nitrate capsules.

The results of the study showed that within 24 hours, the supplements and the juice had lowered the blood pressure of people in both groups. Furthermore, the investigators discovered that about 250 mL of beetroot juice was all that was needed to have the same effects on one's blood pressure as the nitrate capsules.

These findings showed that “beetroot and nitrate capsules are equally effective in lowering blood pressure, indicating that it is the nitrate content of beetroot juice that underlies its potential to reduce blood pressure,” said Amrita Ahluwalia, lead researcher of the study.

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