All Posts tagged insulin

Effects of Grapefruit on Diabetes

Recent studies show that grapefruit and diabetes may share a close link. Researchers concluded that naringenin found in grapefruit may increase the body's sensitivity to insulin. This research was conducted only in the laboratory, and further studies are still needed. Grapefruit and diabetes may share a close link given some recent studies suggesting that eating of the fruit can help in controlling the disease. One recent report suggests that grapefruit may become an effective part of the treatment for type 2 diabetes as it contains the antioxidant Naringenin that can break down fats and increase a person's sensitivity to insulin.

The study also concluded that grapefruit is also capable of treating abnormal levels of cholesterol, warding off metabolic syndrome and improving a person's tolerance to glucose, factors that are all associated with diabetes. The study was conducted by scientists from the Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Engineering in Medicine and Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Although more research needs to be completed, grapefruit is a safe source of vitamins for diabetics. One-half of a grapefruit contains 52 calories and 13g of carbohydrates, and the fruit has a low rating on the glycemic index, indicating a lower propensity to drive up blood sugar levels.

Research

The antioxidant Naringenin is found in grapefruit and has been largely credited for its ability in heping to treat type 2 diabetes. Naringenin is specifically noted for being able to break down fatty acids in the liver, similar to what happens when a person undergoes fasting. Yaakov Nahmias, PhD of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem reports that the results of their study indicate that Naringenin antioxidant was found to be capable of breaking down fatty acids similar to those induced by significant amounts of fasting. It does so by activating nuclear receptors, a family of proteins that can cause the liver to break down fatty acids instead of storing them.

Another study conducted by researchers at the University of Western Ontario showed that Naringenin can correct increases in triglyceride and cholesterol levels, while resisting insulin resistance and normalizing glucose metabolism. The said study showed that Naringenin genetically reprograms the liver to burn up more excess fat, instead of storing it. The said study also showed that Naringenin is able to suppress appetite and decrease food intake, which are common strategies in controlling diabetes.

The study of MGH and Hebrew University scientists also noted that Naringenin can lower bad cholesterol called vLDL while able to cure several symptoms of type 2 diabetes.

Remains Unproven

Research on grapefruit and diabetes, however, has not yet been conducted on humans, and were only done in the laboratory on the liver cells of humans and rats. Until further studies are done to confirm the effects of grapefruit in the treatment of diabetes type 2 in humans, it is still not safe to conclude that the naringenin in grapefruits can indeed cure diabetes. Further studies are still needed to establish its efficacy as well as its overall effects in the body, including the negative effects it might have.

Thus, many health experts do not encourage patients with diabetes to increase their consumption of grapefruits or increase grape juice intake, especially if they are also taking medications. There are patients prescribed with some type of drugs to lower their cholesterol level who are advised not to drink grapefruit juice as it can increase risk of side effects.

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Almonds ward off diabetes, says study

Eating almonds could help prevent diabetes and heart disease, according to a study.

The research found incorporating the nuts into our diets may help treat type 2 diabetes, which accounts for 90 to 95 per cent of all cases.

As well as combating the condition, linked to obesity and physical inactivity, it could tackle cardiovascular disease, the report published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition said.

Diabetes is one of the fastest growing diseases in the world, and sufferers have a shortage of insulin or a decreased ability to use the hormone that allows glucose (sugar) to enter cells and be converted to energy.

When diabetes is not controlled, glucose and fats remain in the blood and over time, damage vital organs.

The study found consuming a diet rich in almonds may help improve insulin sensitivity and decrease LDL-cholesterol levels in those with pre-diabetes, a condition in which people have blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.

Researchers looked at the effects of consuming an almond-enriched diet on 65 adults with pre-diabetes (48 women and 17 men) with an average age in the mid-50s.

The participants were split up, and the group on the almond-enriched diet showed greater improvements in insulin sensitivity and clinically significant reductions in LDL-cholesterol compared with the nut-free group.

Dr Michelle Wien, assistant research professor in nutrition at Loma Linda University's School of Public Health, said, “We have made great strides in chronic disease research from evidence of effective treatment to evidence of effective prevention.”

The principal researcher for the study, conducted at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, added, “It is promising for those with risk factors for chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, that dietary changes may help to improve factors that play a potential role in the disease development.”

An estimated 55 million people in Europe have been diagnosed with diabetes, and the figure is expected to rise to 66 million by 2030.

There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes, which may be autoimmune, genetic, or environmental. It accounts for five per cent of all cases. Type 2 diabetes most often occurs in people older than 40.

Around 60 million people in Europe have pre-diabetes. People with the condition have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease and strokes.

Almonds are cholesterol-free and compared with other nuts, they are the highest in six essential nutrients – fibre, magnesium, protein, potassium, copper and vitamin E.

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Inhalers linked to higher odds of diabetes in asthma and COPD patients

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients who are treated with inhaled corticosteroids may face a significantly higher relative risk for both the development and progression of diabetes, new Canadian research suggests. The warning stems from an analysis of data involving more than 380,000 respiratory patients in Quebec. Inhaler use was associated with a 34 percent increase in the rate of new diabetes diagnoses and diabetes progression, the researchers found. What's more, asthma and COPD patients treated with the highest dose inhalers appear to face even higher diabetes-related risks: a 64 percent jump in the onset of diabetes and a 54 percent rise in diabetes progression. “High doses of inhaled corticosteroids commonly used in patients with COPD are associated with an increase in the risk of requiring treatment for diabetes and of having to intensify therapy to include insulin,” the study team noted in a news release.

Based on their results, researchers from McGill University and the Lady Davis Research Institute at Jewish General Hospital in Montreal suggest “patients instituting therapy with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids should be assessed for possible hyperglycemia and treatment with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids limited to situations where the benefit is clear.”

Lead investigator Samy Suissa colleagues report their findings in the most recent issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

The research team wrote that despite the fact that inhalers are recommended for use solely by the most severely ill COPD patients, they are typically prescribed for a much broader pool that amounts to about 70 percent of all COPD patients. The authors found that more than 30,000 of the COPD/asthma patients in their study developed a new diagnosis diabetes over the course of five and a half years of treatment. This amounted to a diabetes onset rate of a little more than 14.2 out of every 1,000 inhaler patients per year.

“These are not insubstantial numbers,” Suissa said. “Over a large population,m the absolute numbers of affected people are significant.” In addition, in the same timeframe nearly 2,100 patients already diagnosed with diabetes before using inhalers experienced a worsening of their disease that ultimately required upgrading their diabetes care from pills to insulin shots.

Dr. Stuart Weiss, an endocrinologist with the New York University Medical Center, suggested that concern should be directed more at the underlying causes of both diabetes and asthma/COPD rather than at inhalers themselves. “I would say that a lot more attention should first be paid to the lifestyle choices, dietary-wise, that lead to the pro-inflammatory conditions that raise the risk for both type 2 diabetes as well as COPD and asthma,” said Weiss, who is also a clinical assistant professor at the NYU School of Medicine in New York City. “We don't look at asthma as being a dietary condition, but it absolutely is. Which means that in terms of diabetes and asthma risk, the body is reacting to similar stresses brought about by the over-consumption of overprocessed foods and the lack of consumption of green vegetables.”

Noting that the underlying risk for both conditions is similar, Weiss said he suspected the steroids themselves should not bear all the blame. “What may be more at the root of this problem,” he said, “is the fact that those who are most at risk for diabetes are the same people who have the worst asthma and COPD that requires steroid treatment in the first place.” “Yes, we do know that steroids increase insulin resistance and that people treated with steroids require more aggressive diabetes management,” he conceded. “But if we don't generally take an approach that deals with the poor quality of food that people are routinely consuming, the incidence of both these diseases will continue to go up at a dramatic rate.”

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Almonds can fight diabetes

Here is another reason to make the tasty almonds a part of your daily diet. The humble tidbit nuts that combine tons of essential nutrients in one delicious package are an effective weapon in fighting type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, claims a new study. According to researchers, almonds added to the diet have a favorable effect on blood cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity, two vital risk factors that can trigger diabetes and heart problems.

Lead author of the study, Dr. Michelle Wien, Assistant Research Professor in Nutrition at Loma Linda University’s School of Public Health stated, “We have made great strides in chronic disease research from evidence of effective treatment to evidence of effective prevention. “It is promising for those with risk factors for chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, that dietary changes may help to improve factors that play a potential role in the disease development.”

In a bid to assess the impact of almond enriched diet as a prescription for physical wellness, the researchers conducted a study. The focus of the study was to analyze the effect of the humble nut on the progression of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The investigators enrolled a group of 65 adults comprising 48 women and 17 men with pre-diabetes in their mid-50s. The study subjects were split into two groups. As a part of the study, one group was assigned to almonds while the second formed the control group. The control group followed a diet recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA).The group assigned to almonds conformed to a similar diet but also added 20 percent calories from almonds. All the participants were asked to consume the same amount of calories from carbohydrate-containing foods, such as pasta, bread, and rice. However, those consuming the almond-enriched diet reported a lower intake of carbohydrate-containing food items.

After a period of 16 weeks, the investigators compared the insulin and cholesterol levels of both the groups. It was noticed that people consuming almond-enriched diet exhibited marked improvement in their insulin sensitivity and a dramatic reduction in LDL cholesterol as opposed to those eating the nut-free regular diet.

The study was conducted at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. The findings of the research are published in the ‘Journal of the American College of Nutrition

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Tea can overcome the impact of fast food

The content of cholesterol and calories are pretty high in fast food is a cause of obesity and various metabolic disorders and heart. These impacts can be slightly reduced if balanced by drinking tea regularly.Obesity and metabolic disorders in people who are too frequently eat fast food due to the number of fat content and the use of oil in the food. While the threat to the heart is generally triggered by the use of salt, but also greatly affect cholesterol.

In a study conducted by experts from Kobe University, revealed that regular tea consumption may prevent damage to blood cells due to elevated levels of bad cholesterol. Consequently the risk for type 2 diabetes can be reduced.

A study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry that use 2 types of tea which is green tea and black tea. Both can memberikankan benefits, but black tea is said to be heart-protective effect. Benefits of tea that can be obtained according to these studies, among others, to prevent elevated levels of bad cholesterol, blood sugar and insulin resistance. The third condition is the main factor triggering type 2 diabetes caused by unhealthy eating patterns. “Drinking tea may help prevent obesity and blood fat levels settings. The problems are a result of high-fat diet,” says Dr. Carrie Ruxton of the Tea Advisory Panel as quoted from Dailymail, Sunday (19/12/2010).

 

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Chromium and Diabetic Kidney Disease

Diabetic kidney disease (nephropathy), a common complication of diabetes, may respond to a dietary supplement. Researchers at the Medical College of Georgia found that chromium reduced inflammation associated with diabetic kidney disease in mice.

It has long been known that chromium has a role in glucose (sugar) metabolism by boosting the effects of insulin. Insulin is secreted by cells in the pancreas in response to increased levels of glucose in the blood, and it provides cells with glucose for energy.

The results of this new study suggest that chromium may play another part in diabetes. Researchers used three groups of mice: one lean, healthy group and two groups that were genetically engineered to be obese and have diabetes. The healthy mice and one group of diabetic mice were fed regular rodent food while the remaining group received a diet enriched with chromium picolinate, a form that is more easily absorbed by the body.

During the six months of the study, the researchers found that the untreated diabetic mice excreted nearly ten times more albumin than the healthy mice, which was expected. However, the treated diabetic mice excreted about 50 percent less albumin than their untreated diabetic counterparts. Albuminuria (protein in the urine) is a sign of kidney disease.

After six months, the mice were euthanized and tissue samples from the kidneys were examined. The untreated mice had cytokines (interleukin 6 and interleukin 17) associated with inflammation and an enzyme (IDO) that regulates the production of the cytokines. The treated mice had reduced levels of the cytokines compared with the untreated group.

Much research has been done on the relationship between chromium, insulin, and blood sugar levels, as well as use of the mineral in weight loss. Some experts claim that chromium deficiency is a cause of type 2 diabetes and obesity and that supplementation can help prevent and treat both conditions.

The investigators in the current study, which was discussed at the 2010 American Physiological Society conference, concluded that chromium picolinate reduced inflammation in the treated diabetic mice by affecting the activity of the cytokines and IDO. Further research is needed to more clearly define chromium’s role in diabetes and in diabetic kidney disease.

SOURCE:
American Physiological Society

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Gestational Diabetes Can Be Prevent by Dietary Changes

According to UCSF Professor Michael German, MD, who is also the senior author of the paper, tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph1), the enzyme that produces serotonin from tryptophan increased by as much 1000-fold during the early pregnancy. The researchers found that inhibition of serotonin synthesis by restricting the intake of tryptophan in pregnant mice blocked beta cell proliferation and resulted in the development of glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes in the mice.

The research indicates that anything that affects the production of serotonin, such as drugs, diet or genetic inheritance may affect the risk of developing gestational diabetes and possibly the long-term risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Serotonin has been widely studied as a neurotransmitter in the brain for its effects on appetite and mood, especially depression. Since it also influences the insulin production, this could explain why some patients with gestational diabetes experience depression. This would also explain the effect of some classes of psychiatric medications on diabetes.

The study will be published in the upcoming issue of “Nature Medicine” and was published online on June 27, 2010.

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12 Genetic Risk Factors for Diabetes

“Once we know the exact causes of type 2 diabetes, we can develop more effective prevention and therapy strategies,” said Dr. Thomas Illig, research group leader at the Institute of Epidemiology of Helmholtz Zentrum München and one of the corresponding authors of the study. Dr. Cornelia Huth, who played a key role in the selection of the study participants and the analyses of Helmholtz Zentrum München, added: “What enabled us to identify these factors with a high level of confidence is the large number of investigated subjects in this collaborative study. Each factor by itself contributes only slightly to the entire diabetes risk. But to find out more about the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease, even these slight contributions are important.” Dr. Christian Herder and Dr. Wolfgang Rathmann, both of whom are research group leaders at the German Diabetes Center, pointed out: “One important finding of the new study is that some of the gene loci associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk are also risk variants for other diseases such as coronary heart disease, autoimmune diseases and cancer. This suggests that specific proteins could be relevant for several diseases at the same time.”

Type 2 diabetes is a disorder of glucose homeostasis. Characteristic features of this disorder are that the effect and sufficient production of the hormone insulin become lost. The pathogenic mechanisms of this disease are not yet fully understood. It is known, however, that the combination of genetic susceptibility and lifestyle factors leads to diabetes. In Germany alone, not less than seven percent of the population has been diagnosed with the disease – altogether almost six million people. Additionally, studies show that several million men and women in Germany suffer from as yet undiagnosed and thus untreated diabetes.

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Probiotics Could Benefit Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a condition characterised by central obesity, hypertension, and disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism. The syndrome has been linked to increased risks of both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

Gut microflora and metabolic syndrome

“The recent discovery by our group that patients feeding a fat-enriched diet develop diabetes and obesity through changes of their intestinal microflora has led us to envision innovative strategies aiming to hamper the development of the deleterious intestinal bacterial ecology observed during metabolic diseases,” said Professor Remy Burcelin of INSERM, who led the study.

The current study involved administering the probiotic strain B420 to diabetic mice on a high-fat diet. According to the researchers, the probiotic improved the fasting glycaemia and restored the glucose turnover rate to the level of the control mice fed with normal chow.

“Importantly, the probiotic treatment reduced the fasted insulin levels, but improved the insulin secretion upon glucose challenge, indicating an improved metabolic flexibility and restoration of normal glucose metabolism, and a potential beneficial effect on metabolic syndrome,” said Danisco.

The company added that the beneficial effect of B420 is mediated by a reduction of the pro-inflammatory molecule, plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS). “B420 changes intestinal mucosal microbiota and reduces the efflux of LPS into plasma, thereby reducing inflammation and improving insulin metabolism,” it said.

Probiotics and obesity

A breakthrough paper published in Nature in December 2006 reported that microbial populations in the gut are different between obese and lean people, and that when the obese people lost weight their microflora reverted back to that observed in a lean person, suggesting that obesity may have a microbial component.

More findings on the topic have since trickled through the scientific web. At a scientific symposium organised by the Beneo Group in April 2008, Dr. Kieran Touhy from the University of Reading noted that obese animals have significantly lower bifidobacteria levels than their lean counterparts, which suggests potential for prebiotic fibres since the growth of these bacteria is selectively promoted by inulin and fructooligosaccharides.

Dr. Nathalie Delzenne from the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium and Dr. Robert Welch from the University of Ulster presented results from animal and human studies, respectively, which indicated the potential of prebiotic supplementation to regulated food intake.

“This is an interesting new research area which may open up new opportunities for functional foods in the future,” said Dr Julian Stowell, head of scientific affairs for Danisco's Health and Nutrition Platform.

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Sleep Apnea Increases Insulin Resistance

To determine whether intermittent hypoxia (IH) and chronic hypoxia (CH) would have different metabolic effects, Dr. Lee and colleagues fitted adult male mice with arterial and venous catheters for continuous rapid blood monitoring of glucose and insulin sensitivity.

They then exposed the mice to either seven hours of IH, in which treatment, oxygen levels oscillated, reaching a low of about 5 percent once a minute, or CH, in which they were exposed to oxygen at a constant rate of 10 percent, and compared each treatment group to protocol-matched controls.

When compared to the control group, the IH mice demonstrated impaired glucose tolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity; the CH group, however, showed only a reduction in glucose tolerance but not insulin sensitivity compared to controls. “Both intermittent hypoxia and continuous hypoxia exposed mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance, but only the intermittent hypoxia exposed animals demonstrated a reduction in insulin sensitivity,” said Euhan John Lee, M.D., a fellow at the Medical Center.

“The intermittent hypoxia of sleep apnea and the continuous hypoxia of altitude are conditions of hypoxic stress that are known to modulate glucose and insulin homeostasis. Although both forms of hypoxia worsen glucose tolerance, this research demonstrated that the increase in insulin resistance that accompanies intermittent hypoxia, or sleep apnea, is greater than that seen with continuous hypoxia, or altitude,” explained Dr. Lee.

The specific finding that intermittent, but not continuous, hypoxia induced insulin resistance was not expected.

Increased generation of reactive oxygen species, initiation of pro-inflammatory pathways, elevated sympathetic activity, or upregulation of insulin counter-regulatory hormones in IH may contribute to the greater development of insulin resistance in those mice versus those exposed to continuous hypoxia.

“As sleep apnea continues to rise with the rate of obesity, it will be increasingly important to understand both the independent and interactive effects of both morbidities on the development of metabolic disorders. This research demonstrated that intermittent hypoxic exposure can cause changes in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion, which may have important consequences in metabolically vulnerable diabetic patients who present with co-morbid sleep apnea,” said Dr. Lee. (ANI)

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