The link between obesity and cardiac disease is not merely anecdotal, there is proof for that. Now, there is further proof that even overweight causes a clustering of risk factors for cardio vascular abnormalities. A recent publication in Heart Asia, a British Medical Journal, has showed that there is not much difference between the cardio vascular risk factors in obese and overweight people. “The clutch of risk factors – glucose intolerance, hyper tension, high cholesterol – are all significantly higher among overweight and obese subjects than among normal subjects,” Vijay Viswanathan, MV Hospital for Diabetes and Prof. M.Viswanthan Diabetes Research Center said. He co-authored the article with Shabana Tharkar, also from the Indian hospital.
The study, conducted among two groups – 2021 subjects aged over 20 years, and 1289 subjects aged 8-19 years – indicated that even among overweight, 'non-obese' people, the presence of major cardiovascular risk factors was not significantly different. While the total diabetes prevalence among the obese population is 28.4 per cent, among the overweight population is 25 per cent. Again, with hypertension, the value for the obese group is 34.2 per cent, while for the overweight population it is 27.6 per cent. In contrast, the corresponding values are 16.2 per cent (diabetes) and 20.2 (hypertension).
Similarly, the study showed higher values for triglycerides and high HDL cholesterol for both these groups.
Overweight was defined as a Body Mass Index, equal to, or in excess of 25 kg/m2 and obesity, a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or above. Further worrisome is the increasing rate of overweight and obesity among both men and women from 1995 to 2008, across all age groups. Dr. Viswanathan added that this is the result of rapid urbanisation. “Obesity has already hit the Western world and it is time for Indians to wake up to the alarm bells,” according to the article. Results from previous studies show a lower risk of developing diabetes with just a five per cent initial reduction in weight, Dr. Viswanathan said.
The findings highlight the urgent need for framing direct and indirect strategies to control the rising levels of obesity in the population, in order to substantially reduce the country's non communicable diseases burden, he added. Regulating the diet, reducing intake of fast foods and high-calorie meals, and upping physical activity and exercise on a regular basis would go a long way in keeping weight under control, diabetologists advise.
The researchers analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006) which consisted of 4,528 US adults 18 years of age or older that had no previous hypertension diagnosis. The survey asked about dietary habits and what foods and beverages that they consumed. The researchers said that those who ate 74 grams (about 2.5 cans of sugared soda) or more each day of fructose sugar, had shown an increased risk for developing hypertension. There was a 26 percent chance for these individuals to have high blood pressure reading at 135/85mmHg , a 30 percent higher risk to have high blood pressure measured at 140/90, and a 77 percent higher risk for having blood pressure measured at 160/100 mmHg. A normal blood pressure reading is under 120/80 mmHg.
The researchers point out that even though this shows a potential trigger for high blood pressure, a randomized clinical study would need to be conducted in order to prove that a low fructose diet would prevent hypertension.
The number of women suffering from gout has doubled in the last 20 years, research shows.
The problem is traditionally associated with middle aged men but evidence suggests the disease is also a concern for women. According to a survey, the prevalence of gout in women was 3.5 per cent for ages 60 to 69, 4.6 per cent in the 70 to 79 age group, and 5.6 per cent in those aged 80 or older.
Gout is a common and painful inflammatory arthritis caused by elevated uric acid levels in the blood. When too much uric acid builds up in joint fluid, crystals form and cause joint swelling and inflammation. Dr Hyon Choi, from the Boston University School of Medicine, which conducted the review of previous research, said: “We identified 104 gout cases in women and 200 in men. “Our study found that higher levels of uric acid in the blood increase the risk gout risk for women.”
This study, the first to examine the relationship between uric acid levels and gout risk in women, also evaluated purported risk factors for gout and found that increasing age, obesity, hypertension, alcohol use, and diuretic use to be among the leading contributors for women.
The research team analysed data from 2,476 women and 1,951 men, and evaluated uric acid levels and risk factors for gout that included: age, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, hypertension, medication use – including diuretics and hormone replacement therapy – blood glucose and cholesterol levels, and menopause status. The study looked at men and women from various health sources and records over an average of 28 years. The researchers found age, obesity, alcohol consumption, diuretic use, and hypertension were all independently associated with higher risk of gout incidence in women.
The study was published in the April issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism, a journal of the American College of Rheumatology.