All Posts tagged findings

Garlic protection from Osteoarthritis

Researchers at King’s College London and the University of East Anglia have discovered that women who consume a diet high in allium vegetables, such as garlic, onions and leeks, have lower levels of hip osteoarthritis. The findings, published in the BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders journal, not only highlight the possible effects of diet in protecting against osteoarthritis, but also show the potential for using compounds found in garlic to develop treatments for the condition. A relationship between body weight and osteoarthritis was previously recognised, although it is not yet completely understood. This study is the first of its kind to delve deeper into the dietary patterns and influences that could impact on development and prevention of the condition.

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in adults, affecting around 8 million people in the UK, and women are more likely to develop it than men. It causes pain and disability by affecting the hip, knees and spine in the middle-aged and elderly population. Currently there is no effective treatment other than pain relief and, ultimately, joint replacement.

The study, funded by Arthritis Research UK, the Wellcome Trust and Dunhill Medical Trust, looked at over 1,000 healthy female twins, many of whom had no symptoms of arthritis. The team carried out a detailed assessment of the diet patterns of the twins and analysed these alongside x-ray images, which captured the extent of early osteoarthritis in the participants’ hips, knees and spine. They found that in those who consumed a healthy diet with a high intake of fruit and vegetables, particularly alliums such as garlic, there was less evidence of early osteoarthritis in the hip joint.

To investigate the potential protective effect of alliums further, researchers studied the compounds found in garlic. They found that that a compound called diallyl disulphide limits the amount of cartilage-damaging enzymes when introduced to a human cartilage cell-line in the laboratory. Dr Frances Williams, lead author from the Department of Twin Research at King’s College London, says: “While we don’t yet know if eating garlic will lead to high levels of this component in the joint, these findings may point the way towards future treatments and prevention of hip osteoarthritis. “It has been known for a long time that there is a link between body weight and osteoarthritis. Many researchers have tried to find dietary components influencing the condition, but this is the first large scale study of diet in twins. If our results are confirmed by follow-up studies, this will point the way towards dietary intervention or targeted drug therapy for people with osteoarthritis.”

Professor Ian Clark of the University of East Anglia said: “Osteoarthritis is a major health issue and this exciting study shows the potential for diet to influence the course of the disease. With further work to confirm and extend these early findings, this may open up the possibility of using diet or dietary supplements in the future treatment osteoarthritis.”

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Food allergies and ADHD

A controversial new Dutch study may have found a link between food allergies and ADHD. However, many experts are dismissing the findings. The study found that in children with ADHD, putting them on a restrictive diet to eliminate possible, previously unknown food allergies or sensitivities decreased hyperactivity for 64% of them. “There is a longstanding, somewhat inconsistent story about diet and ADHD,” said Jan Buitelaar, the lead author of the Dutch study and a psychiatrist at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. “On the one hand, people think it’s sugar that’s the trigger, others think that food coloring could be causing ADHD. Our approach was quite different. We went [with] the idea that food may give some kind of allergic or hyperactivity reaction to the brain.”

There have been previous studies in this field, but they were limited. “This has long been viewed as a kind of a controversial approach,” Buitelaar said. “When we started the research, I was skeptical, but the results convinced me.”

In the study, of the 41 kids who completed the elimination diet, 32 saw decreased symptoms. When certain foods thought to be “triggers” for each child were reintroduced, most of the children relapsed. Among 50 kids given a “control” diet that was just a standard, healthy diet for children, no significant changes were noted. Given these findings, Buitelaar recommended that the elimination diet become part of standard of care for children with ADHD. However, while pediatricians acknowledge some effectiveness, they were against the elimination diet as part of the care for children with ADHD.

“People seem to think that dietary modification is essentially ‘free,’ but it is difficult, socially disruptive, and presents the risk for nutritional deficiency,” said Dr. Michael Daines, a pediatric allergist-immunologist at the University of Arizona. Though Daines is willing to work with families who want to try an elimination diet for treating ADHD, he feels it will only have an effect if the child is having a true food allergy or intolerance.

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‘No evidence’ for Vitamin B allergy

Consumption of Vitamin B during pregnancy does not increase the risk of allergy in the infants, says a new study from Japan that challenges previous findings. Maternal consumption of folate and vitamins B2, B6, and B12 during pregnancy was not associated with the risk of the infant developing asthma or eczema, according to findings from 763 infants published in Pediatric Allergy and Immunology.

Contradictory science

The link between folate and folic acid, the synthetic form of the vitamin, and respiratory health is not clear cut, with contradictory results reported in the literature. A study from Johns Hopkins Children’s Center found that higher levels of folate were associated with a 16 per cent reduction of asthma in (Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology, June 2009, Vol. 123, pp. 1253-1259.e2). However, a Norwegian study reported that folic acid supplements during the first trimester were associated with a 6 per cent increase in wheezing, a 9 per cent increase in infections of the lower respiratory tract, and a 24 per cent increase in hospitalisations for such infections, (Archives of Diseases in Childhood, doi:10.1136/adc.2008.142448). In addition, researchers from the University of Adelaide in Australia reported that folic acid supplements in late pregnancy may increase the risk of asthma by about 25 per cent in children aged between 3 and 5 years (American Journal of Epidemiology, 2010, doi:10.1093/aje/kwp315).

Illumination from the Land of the Rising Sun?

The new study, performed by researchers from Fukuoka University, the University of Tokyo, and Osaka City University, goes beyond folate and folic acid, and reports no link between Vitamin B intake and the risk of asthma or eczema in children. “To the best of our knowledge, there has been no birth cohort study on the relationship between maternal consumption of Vitamin B during pregnancy and the risk of allergic disorders in the offspring,” wrote the researchers. The findings were based on data from 763 pairs of Japanese mother and child. A diet history questionnaire was used to assess maternal intakes of the various B vitamins during pregnancy, and the infants were followed until the age of 16 to 24 months. Japan has no mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid.

Results showed that, according to criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, 22 and 19 percent of the children had symptoms of wheeze and eczema, respectively, but there was no association between these children and the dietary intakes of the various B vitamins by their mothers. “Our results suggest that maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and vitamin B2 during pregnancy was not measurably associated with the risk of wheeze or eczema in the offspring,” said the researchers. “Further investigation is warranted to draw conclusions as to the question of whether maternal Vitamin B intake during pregnancy is related to the risk of childhood allergic,” they concluded.

According to the European Federation of Allergy and Airway Diseases Patients Association (EFA), over 30m Europeans suffer from asthma, costing Europe €17.7bn every year. The cost due to lost productivity is estimated to be around €9.8bn. The condition is on the rise in the Western world and the most common long-term condition in the UK today. According to the American Lung Association, almost 20m Americans suffer from asthma. The condition is reported to be responsible for over 14m lost school days in children, while the annual economic cost of asthma is said to be over $16.1bn.

Source: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. Volume 22, Issue 1-Part-I, February 2011, Pages: 69–74 DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2010.01081.x
“Maternal B vitamin intake during pregnancy and wheeze and eczema in Japanese infants aged 16–24 months: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study”. Authors: Y. Miyake, S. Sasaki, K. Tanaka, Y. Hirota

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Not All Infant Formulas Are Alike

New findings from the Monell Center reveal that weight gain of formula-fed infants is influenced by the type of formula the infant is consuming. The findings have implications related to the infant’s risk for the development of obesity, diabetes and other diseases later in life. “Events early in life have long-term consequences on health and one of the most significant influences is early growth rate,” said study lead author Julie Mennella, Ph.D., a developmental psychobiologist at Monell. “We already know that formula-fed babies gain more weight than breast-fed babies. But we didn’t know whether this was true for all types of formula.”

While most infant formulas are cow’s milk-based, other choices include soy-based and protein hydrolysate-based formulas. Protein hydrolysate formulas contain pre-digested proteins and typically are fed to infants who cannot tolerate the intact proteins in other formulas. In adults, pre-digested proteins are believed to act in the intestine to initiate the end of a meal, thus leading to smaller meals and intake of fewer calories. Based on this, the authors hypothesized that infants who were feeding protein hydrolysate formulas would eat less and have an altered growth pattern relative to infants feeding cow’s milk-based formula.

In the study, published online in the journal Pediatrics, infants whose parents had already decided to bottle-feed were randomly assigned at two weeks of age to feed either a cow’s milk-based formula (35 infants) or a protein hydrolysate formula (24 infants) for seven months. Both formulas contained the same amount of calories, but the hydrolysate formula had more protein, including greater amounts of small peptides and free amino acids. Infants were weighed once each month in the laboratory, where they also were videotaped consuming a meal of the assigned formula. The meal continued until the infant signaled that s/he was full.

Over the seven months of the study, the protein hydrolysate infants gained weight at a slower rate than infants fed cow milk formula. Linear growth, or length, did not differ between the two groups, demonstrating that the differences in growth were specifically attributable to weight. “All formulas are not alike,” said Mennella. “These two formulas have the same amount of calories, but differ considerably in terms of how they influence infant growth.”

When the data were compared to national norms for breast-fed infants, the rate of weight gain of protein hydrolysate infants was comparable to the breast milk standards; in contrast, infants fed cow’s milk formula gained weight at a greater rate than the same breast milk standards. Analysis of the laboratory meal revealed the infants fed the protein hydrolysate formula consumed less formula during the meal. “One of the reasons the protein hydrolysate infants had similar growth patterns to breast-fed infants, who are the gold standard, is that they consumed less formula during a feed as compared to infants fed cow’s milk formula” said Mennella. “The next question to ask is: Why do infants on cow’s milk formula overfeed?”

The findings highlight the need to understand the long-term influences of infant formula composition on feeding behavior, growth, and metabolic health. Future studies will utilize measures of energy metabolism and expenditure to examine how the individual formulas influence growth, and how each differs from breastfeeding. Also contributing to the study, which was funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, were Monell scientists Gary Beauchamp and Alison Ventura.

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Garlic could protect against hip osteoarthritis

Garlic could protect against hip osteoarthritis

Researchers at King's College London and the University of East Anglia have discovered that women who consume a diet high in allium vegetables, such as garlic, onions and leeks, have lower levels of hip osteoarthritis. The findings, published in the BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders journal, not only highlight the possible effects of diet in protecting against osteoarthritis, but also show the potential for using compounds found in garlic to develop treatments for the condition. A relationship between body weight and osteoarthritis was previously recognised, although it is not yet completely understood.

This study is the first of its kind to delve deeper into the dietary patterns and influences that could impact on development and prevention of the condition. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in adults, affecting around 8 million people in the UK, and women are more likely to develop it than men. It causes pain and disability by affecting the hip, knees and spine in the middle-aged and elderly population. Currently there is no effective treatment other than pain relief and, ultimately, joint replacement.

garlic

The study, funded by Arthritis Research UK, the Wellcome Trust and Dunhill Medical Trust, looked at over 1,000 healthy female twins, many of whom had no symptoms of arthritis. The team carried out a detailed assessment of the diet patterns of the twins and analysed these alongside x-ray images, which captured the extent of early osteoarthritis in the participants' hips, knees and spine. They found that in those who consumed a healthy diet with a high intake of fruit and vegetables, particularly alliums such as garlic, there was less evidence of early osteoarthritis in the hip joint.

To investigate the potential protective effect of alliums further, researchers studied the compounds found in garlic. They found that that a compound called diallyl disulphide limits the amount of cartilage-damaging enzymes when introduced to a human cartilage cell-line in the laboratory. Dr Frances Williams, lead author from the Department of Twin Research at King's College London, says: “While we don't yet know if eating garlic will lead to high levels of this component in the joint, these findings may point the way towards future treatments and prevention of hip osteoarthritis. “It has been known for a long time that there is a link between body weight and osteoarthritis. Many researchers have tried to find dietary components influencing the condition, but this is the first large scale study of diet in twins. If our results are confirmed by follow-up studies, this will point the way towards dietary intervention or targeted drug therapy for people with osteoarthritis.”

Professor Ian Clark of the University of East Anglia said: “Osteoarthritis is a major health issue and this exciting study shows the potential for diet to influence the course of the disease. With further work to confirm and extend these early findings, this may open up the possibility of using diet or dietary supplements in the future treatment osteoarthritis.”

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New Diet: Imagine It!!!

New Diet: Imagine It!!!

Dieters often try to avoid thinking about the foods they crave, but maybe that's the wrong approach.Imagining yourself biting into a luscious piece of chocolate cake – thinking about the way it smells, the creamy texture of frosting on your tongue – may make you eat less of it, a new study suggests. This finding challenges age-old conventional wisdom that tells us thinking about goodies increases our cravings and ultimately our consumption, according to a study from Carnegie Mellon.

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Drawing on research that shows mental imagery and perception affect emotion and behavior, the research team – led by assistant professor of social and decision sciences Carey Morewedge – found that repeatedly imagining indulging in a treat decreases ones desire for it.

“These findings suggest that trying to suppress one's thoughts of desired foods in order to curb cravings for those foods is a fundamentally flawed strategy,” Morewedge said in a statement.

The researchers conducted five experiments in which 51 people were asked to imagine themselves doing a series of repetitive actions – including, in one experiment, eating different amounts of M&Ms. A control group imagined putting coins into a washing machine.

Subjects were then invited to eat their fill of M&Ms. Those who had imagined eating the most ultimately ate fewer candies than the others. Subsequent experiments confirmed the results.

The researchers say their results, which were published in the December 10 issue of Science, could have wide-ranging effects.

Says Morewedge: “We think these findings will help develop future interventions to reduce cravings for things such as unhealthy food, drugs and cigarettes, and hope they will help us learn how to help people make healthier food choices.”

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Can Omega-3 foods prevent eye disease in seniors?

Eating a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids appears to protect seniors against the onset of a serious eye disease known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a new analysis indicates.”Our study corroborates earlier findings that eating omega-3-rich fish and shellfish may protect against advanced AMD,” study lead author Sheila K. West, of the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore, said in a news release from the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

“While participants in all groups, including controls, averaged at least one serving of fish or shellfish per week, those who had advanced AMD were significantly less likely to consume high omega-3 fish and seafood,” she added.

The observations are published in the December issue of Ophthalmology.

West and her colleagues based their findings on a fresh analysis of a one-year dietary survey conducted in the early 1990s. The poll involved nearly 2,400 seniors between the ages of 65 and 84 living in Maryland's Eastern Shore region, where fish and shellfish are eaten routinely. After their food intake was assessed, participants underwent eye exams. About 450 had AMD, including 68 who had an advanced stage of the disease, which can lead to severe vision impairment or blindness. In the United States, AMD is the major cause of blindness in whites, according to background information in the news release.

Prior evidence suggested that dietary zinc is similarly protective against AMD, so the researchers looked to see if zinc consumption from a diet of oysters and crabs reduced risk of AMD, but no such association was seen. However, the study authors theorized that the low dietary zinc levels relative to zinc supplements could account for the absence of such a link.

Anand Swaroop, chief of the neurobiology, neuro-degeneration, and repair laboratory at the U.S. National Eye Institute, interpreted the findings with caution. “It does make huge sense theoretically,” he said. “Photoreceptors have a very high concentration of a specific type of fatty acids and lipids, relative to many other cell types. So it would make sense that omega-3 consumption would be beneficial. The theory is sound.”

“However, I wouldn't want people to start taking grams of omega-3 to protect against AMD based on this finding because I'm not really sure that this study has sufficient power to draw any conclusions,” Swaroop added. “This is just a one-year analysis and AMD is a long-term disease. The correlation is important, and it should be explored further. But we need larger studies with longer term follow-up before being able to properly assess the impact.”

SOURCE: Anand Swaroop, Ph.D senior investigator and chief of neurobiology, neurodegneration, and repair laboratory, U.S. National Eye Institute, Bethesda, Md.; American Academy of Ophthalmology, news release, Dec. 1, 2010

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Low Vitamin D levels common in breast cancer

More than half of women with breast cancer have low vitamin D levels, British researchers report.”Women with breast cancer should be tested for vitamin D levels and offered supplements, if necessary,” says researcher Sonia Li, MD, of the Mount Vernon Cancer Centre in Middlesex, England. The findings were presented at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

Some studies have suggested a link between low vitamin levels and breast cancer risk and progression, but others have not, she says. No studies have proven cause and effect. Previous research suggests a biologic rationale for vitamin D putting the brakes on breast cancer development and spread, Li says. Breast cancer cells have vitamin D receptors, and when these receptors are activated by vitamin D, it triggers a series of molecular changes that can slow cell growth and cause cells to die, she says. Even if it does not have a direct effect on the tumor, vitamin D is needed to maintain the bone health of women with breast cancer, Li says. That's especially important given the increasing use of aromatase inhibitors, which carry an increased risk of bone fractures, she says.

Vitamin D is found in some foods, especially milk and fortified cereals, and is made by the body after exposure to sunlight. It is necessary for bone health.

For the study, Li and colleagues collected blood samples from 166 women with breast cancer and measured their levels of vitamin D. Of the total, 46% had vitamin D insufficiency, defined as levels between 12.5 and 50 nanomoles per liter (nmol/L) of blood. Another 6% had vitamin D deficiency, with levels lower than 12.5 nmol/L. When ethnicity was considered, vitamin D levels were lower in Asian women than in white or other women: an average of about 36 nmol/L vs. 61 nmol/L and 39 nmol/L, respectively.

The researchers theorized that vitamin D levels would be higher in the summer, when there are more daylight hours, but the study showed no association between vitamin D levels and seasons. Last month, the U.S. Institute of Medicine issued updated guidelines stating that a blood level of 50 nmol/L (or 20 nanograms/milliliter) is sufficient for 97% of people.

This study was presented at a medical conference. The findings should be considered preliminary as they have not yet undergone the “peer review” process, in which outside experts scrutinize the data prior to publication in a medical journal.

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Diet Advice can help control diabetes

Individuals with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes know that maintaining a nutritious diet is one of the most important things they can do to control their disease. The findings of a new study suggest that the services of a registered dietitian may help individuals accomplish this goal.

A team of investigators from the American Dietetic Association reviewed evidence from previous research and summarized their findings in a report published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

In their write-up, researchers laid out a set of exhaustive dietary guidelines for individuals affected by diabetes. Researchers said that the services of registered dietitians may be key in helping individuals follow the guidelines, which could help them significantly improve their condition.

“The evidence is strong that medical nutrition therapy provided by registered dietitians is an effective and essential therapy in the management of diabetes. Registered Dietitians are uniquely skilled in this process,” said Marion Franz, who led the investigation.

The guidelines developed by the research team lay out 29 nutritional points that can help diabetics improve their blood sugar control.

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Watercress may help fight cancer

The pilot study used four women, all of whom were breast cancer survivors, and monitored changes in their blood of key molecules involved in the growth of cancer cells. The participants were asked to fast on the day of the tests and had blood samples taken before and after eating a portion of watercress. The scientists found that six hours after they had eaten the leaves, the women experienced a drop in the activity of a molecule called 4E binding protein, which is thought to be involved in helping cancer cells survive.

Laboratory studies also showed that extracts taken from watercress leaves inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells. The findings build on epidemiological studies that have shown people who eat watercress and other vegetables rich in isothiocyanates, such as broccoli and cabbage, are at lower risk of developing cancer.

Hazel Nunn, Cancer Research UK's health information manager, said the current study was too small to draw any firm conclusions.

She added: “Watercress may well have benefits but there's no reason to believe that it should be superior to a generally healthy, balanced diet that is high in fibre, vegetables and fruit and low in red and processed meat, salt, saturated fat and alcohol.”

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