A new research study from Loma Linda University (LLU) demonstrates that naturally occurring antioxidants in pecans may help contribute to heart health and disease prevention; the results were published in the January 2011 issue of The Journal of Nutrition.
Pecans contain different forms of the antioxidant vitamin E — known as tocopherols, plus numerous phenolic substances, many of them with antioxidant abilities. The nuts are especially rich in one form of vitamin E called gamma-tocopherols. The findings illustrate that after eating pecans, gamma-tocopherol levels in the body doubled and unhealthy oxidation of LDL (bad) cholesterol in the blood decreased by as much as 33 percent. Oxidized LDLs may further contribute to inflammation in the arteries and place people at greater risk of cardiovascular problems. “Our tests show that eating pecans increases the amount of healthy antioxidants in the body,” says LLU researcher Ella Haddad, DrPH, associate professor in the School of Public Health department of nutrition. “This protective effect is important in helping to prevent development of various diseases such as cancer and heart disease.”
These findings are from a research project designed to further evaluate the health benefits of pecans, according to Dr. Haddad. She analyzed biomarkers in blood and urine samples from study participants (a total of 16 men and women between the ages 23 and 44) who ate a sequence of three diets composed of whole pecans, pecans blended with water, or a control meal of equivalent nutrient composition. The pecan meals contained about three ounces of the nut. Samples were taken prior to meals and at intervals up to 24 hours after eating. Following the test meals composed of whole pecans and blended pecans, researchers found that amounts of gamma-tocopherols (vitamin E) in the body doubled eight hours after both meals, and oxygen radical absorbance capabilities (ORAC — a scientific method for measuring antioxidant power in the blood) increased 12 and 10 percent respectively two hours after the meals. In addition, following the whole-pecan meal, oxidized LDL cholesterol decreased by 30 percent (after 2 hours), 33 percent (after 3 hours), and 26 percent (after 8 hours).
“This study is another piece of evidence that pecans are a healthy food,” says Dr. Haddad. “Previous research has shown that pecans contain antioxidant factors. Our study shows these antioxidants are indeed absorbed in the body and provide a protective effect against diseases.” Research from Loma Linda University published earlier in the Journal of Nutrition showed that a pecan-enriched diet lowered levels of LDL cholesterol by 16.5 percent — more than twice the American Heart Association’s Step I diet, which was used as the control diet in that study. Similarly, the pecan-enriched diet lowered total cholesterol levels by 11.3 percent (also twice as much as the Step I diet).
It's no secret that eating well is good for both body and mind, so it may not come as a surprise that a new study finds women who eat more olive oil and leafy vegetables such as salads and cooked spinach are significantly less likely to develop heart disease.A group of Italian researchers found that women who ate at least 1 serving of leafy vegetables per day were more than 40 percent less likely to develop heart disease over an average of eight years, relative to women who ate two or fewer portions of those vegetables each week. Women who downed at least 3 tablespoons of olive oil daily – such as in salad dressing – were also 40 percent less likely to be diagnosed with heart disease, compared to women who ate the least olive oil.
It's not exactly clear why specifically leafy vegetables and olive oil may protect the heart, said study author Dr. Domenico Palli of the Cancer Research and Prevention Institute in Florence. “Probably the mechanisms responsible for the protective effect of plant-origin foods on cardiovascular diseases involve micronutrients such as folate, antioxidant vitamins and potassium, all present in green leafy vegetables.” Folate reduces blood levels of homocysteine, Palli explained, which is thought to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease by damaging the inner lining of arteries. Other studies have shown people who eat more potassium have lower blood pressure, which can protect the cardiovascular system. Virgin olive oil may be particularly effective at lowering heart disease risk because of its high level of antioxidant plant compounds, he added.
This is not the first study to link olive oil or vegetables to good heart health. Most famously, the traditional Mediterranean diet — rich in vegetables and monounsaturated fats from olive oil and nuts, but low in saturated fat from meat and dairy — has been tied to a decreased risk of heart disease. Mediterranean-style eating has also been credited with lowering risk for some cancers, diabetes, and, more recently, with slowing brain aging. Cardiovascular disease is a major killer, responsible for 30 percent of all deaths worldwide and the leading cause of death for both men and women in the U.S.
To look more closely at the role of foods in protecting against heart disease, Palli and colleagues reviewed dietary information collected from nearly 30,000 Italian women participating in a large national health study. Researchers followed the women, whose mean age was 50 at the beginning of the study, for an average of 8 years, noting who developed heart disease. In that time, the women experienced 144 major heart disease-related events, such as heart attack or bypass surgery, the authors report in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Women who ate at least one daily serving (about two ounces) of leafy vegetables – such as raw lettuce or endives, or cooked vegetables like spinach or chard — had a 46 percent lower risk of developing heart disease than women who ate at most two portions per week. Consuming at least an ounce of olive oil per day lowered their risk by 44 percent relative to women who consumed a half-ounce or less daily, the authors found.
The women's intake of other types of vegetables, such as roots and cabbages, and their consumption of tomatoes or fruit did not seem to be linked to their risk for major heart events. Both fruits and vegetables have been associated with heart benefits in past studies conducted elsewhere in Europe and in North America. The authors caution that the apparent lack of positive effect from high fruit consumption in their results may have something to do with a different attitude toward fruit in Italy. It is cheap, varied and easily available, so eating a lot of fruit is a widespread habit but it does not necessarily signal that the rest of someone's diet is as healthy, the authors wrote. Another issue with the study, Palli noted, is that women had to report how much they ate of various items, and some may not have remembered their diets accurately, or may have changed their eating habits during the study period. In addition, people sometimes over-estimate their healthy behaviors, believing they eat healthier than they really do.
SOURCE: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, published online December 22, 2010.
Women consuming too much red meat may have a higher risk of stroke than women eating less, says a new study. Red meat is high in saturated fat and cholesterol; both are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, heart attack, and stroke. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggests lowering saturated fat intake and eating more fresh fruits and vegetables to help reduce your risk of stroke. Writing in the journal Stroke, researchers examined nearly 35,000 Swedish women, ages 39 to 73. None of the women had heart disease prior to the start of the study in 1997.
After ten years, results showed 4% of the study participants, 1,680 women, had a stroke. Those consuming the most red meat had the highest risk of stroke. Women in the top tenth of red meat intake, consuming at least 3.6 ounces each day, were 42% more likely to have a stroke, compared to women who ate just under one ounce of red meat daily.
Eating processed meat also increased stroke risk. Women eating 1.5 ounces of processed meat each day were 24% more likely to suffer a cerebral infarction, compared to woman consuming less than half an ounce of processed meat each day. Processed meat was not linked to any other form of stroke. Cerebral infarction is a type of stroke caused by a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain. Other types of stroke involve a rupturing of a blood vessel, called hemorrhagic strokes.
The scientists blame red meat and processed meat’s effect on raising blood pressure for the increased stroke risk. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), every year an estimated 17 million people die due to cardiovascular diseases, most notably stroke and heart attack. The WHO lists physical inactivity and unhealthy diet as the main risk factors for heart disease and major cardiac events.
The more time adolescent girls spend in front of Facebook, the more their chances of developing a negative body image and various eating disorders, such as anorexia, bulimia and exaggerated dieting. This has been shown in a new study from the University of Haifa.
Eating disorders include a wide spectrum of abnormal mental and behavioral conducts related to food and body weight, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. This study, conducted by Prof. Yael Latzer, Prof. Ruth Katz and Zohar Spivak of the Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences at the University of Haifa, set out to examine the effects of two factors on the development of eating disorders in young girls: exposure to the media and self-empowerment.
A group of 248 girls aged 12-19 (average age: 14.8) took part in the survey. These girls were asked to provide information on their Internet and television viewing habits. Regarding the latter, they were asked to give the number of popular shows related to extreme standards of physical image (the “Barbie” model) that they watched. The girls also filled out questionnaires that examined their approach to slimming, bulimia, physical satisfaction or dissatisfaction, their general outlook on eating, and their sense of personal empowerment.
The results showed that the more time girls spend on Facebook, the more they suffered conditions of bulimia, anorexia, physical dissatisfaction, negative physical self-image, negative approach to eating and more of an urge to be on a weight-loss diet. Extensive online exposure to fashion and music content showed similar tendencies, but manifested in fewer types of eating disorders. As such, the more the exposure to fashion content on the Internet, the higher a girl’s chances of developing anorexia. A similar direct link was found between viewing gossip- and leisure-related television programs (the likes of “Gossip Girl”) and eating disorders in adolescent girls. The study also revealed that the level of personal empowerment in these girls is negatively linked to eating disorders, such that the higher the level of empowerment, the more positive the physical self-image and the lower the chances of developing an eating disorder.
In this study, exposure to the media and the consequential sense of personal empowerment was found to be associated to parenting practices. Girls whose parents were involved in their media usage; who knew what they were viewing and reading and where they were surfing on the web; who watched, surfed or read along with them; and who conducted cooperative and critical discussions with their daughters about the content of their surfing habits, showed more personal empowerment, forming a protective shield against eating disorders.
On the other hand, parents who were not involved in their media exposure, were not aware of the content that their daughters were consuming, and instead of sharing and becoming familiar with that content chose to limit or prohibit exposure, led to lower self-empowerment in their daughters. This, in turn, has a positive link to various eating problems and negative body image.
“Significant potential for future research and application of eating disorder prevention lies in an understanding of how parenting decisions can have effect on an adolescent girl’s sense of empowerment and that enforcing a girl’s sense of empowerment is a means to strengthening body image. This study has shown that a parent has potential ability to prevent dangerous behavioral disorders and negative eating behavior in particular,” the researchers stated.
About a third of some of the most common forms of cancer could be prevented through healthy diet, physical fitness, and limiting alcohol intake, the American Institute for Cancer Research and the World Cancer Research Fund say in a new report. About 7.6 million people die from cancer every year worldwide, and 12.7 million new cases are diagnosed. According to the Union for International Cancer Control, a third of cancer cases could be cured through early diagnosis and treatment and 30% to 40% could be prevented. About 340,000 cases of cancer could be prevented annually in the U.S. if more people started eating a varied and healthy diet, started a regimen of physical activity, limited alcohol intake, and maintained a healthy weight, the new report says.
“Physical activity is recommended for people of all ages as a means to reduce risks for certain types of cancers and other non-communicable diseases,” says Tim Armstrong, MD, of the World Health Organization, says in a news release. “In order to improve their health and prevent several diseases, adults should do at least 150 minutes moderate physical activity throughout the week. This can be achieved by simply walking 30 minutes five times per week or by cycling to work daily.”
To reduce cancer risk, people also should quit smoking, avoid excessive sun exposure, and protect themselves against cancer-causing infections.
Tim Byers, MD, MPH, of the Colorado School of Public Health, says scientists urge Americans “to make the simple lifestyle changes of eating healthy food, getting regular physical activity, and maintaining a healthy weight to reduce cancer risk.” The World Cancer Declaration outlines 11 targets it says could be achieved by 2020 to fight cancer. These goals include: significant drops in global tobacco use, obesity, and alcohol intake; universal vaccination programs for hepatitis B and human papilloma virus (HPV); universal availability of effective pain medication; and efforts to dispel misconceptions about cancer. The health organizations say in a detailed report that the most common cancers in the U.S. and Britain are of the breast, colon/rectum, lung, and prostate.
The American Institute for Cancer Research recommends the following cancer-prevention steps.
- Limit consumption of calorie-dense foods, particularly processed foods high in added sugar, low in fiber, or high in fat.
- Avoid sugary drinks.
- Eat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and beans.
- Limit consumption of red meats such as beef, pork, and lamb, and avoid processed meats.
- Limit consumption of salty foods and foods processed with sodium.
- Dietary supplements for lowering cancer risk are not recommended.
- Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight.
- Be physically active for 30 minutes or more every day.
A new study has found that the leading causes of death are no more infectious diseases but chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer – which may be affected by food habits. Researchers investigated eating patterns of over 2500 adults between the ages of 70 and 79 over a ten-year period and found that certain diets were associated with reduced mortality.
By determining the consumption frequency of 108 different food items, researchers were able to group the participants into six different groups as per their food choices:
- Healthy foods- 374 participants
- High-fat dairy products- 332
- Meat, fried foods, and alcohol- 693
- Breakfast cereal-386
- Refined grains-458
- Sweets and desserts-339
‘Healthy foods’ group ate more low-fat dairy products, fruit, whole grains, poultry, fish, and vegetables, and lower consumption of meat, fried foods, sweets, high-calorie drinks, and added fat. ‘High-fat dairy products’ group had higher intake of foods such as ice cream, cheese, and 2 per cent and whole milk and yoghurt, and lower intake of poultry, low-fat dairy products, rice, and pasta.
End results indicated that ‘High-fat dairy products’ group had a 40 per cent higher risk of mortality than the Healthy foods cluster and the ‘Sweets and desserts’ group had a 37 per cent higher risk. No significant differences in risk of mortality were seen between the ‘Healthy foods’ cluster and the ‘Breakfast cereal’ or ‘Refined grains’ clusters.
The “results of this study suggest that older adults who follow a dietary pattern consistent with current guidelines to consume relatively high amounts of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, poultry and fish, may have a lower risk of mortality,” said Amy L. Anderson at Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland.
“Because a substantial percentage of older adults in this study followed the ”Healthy foods” dietary pattern, adherence to such a diet appears a feasible and realistic recommendation for potentially improved survival and quality of life in the growing older adult population.” The study will be published in the January 2011 issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association .
With eating disorders on the rise among boys, minorities and younger children, doctors need to keep an eye out for unexpected cases, according to the author of a new report. The stereotype that eating disorders affect only affluent, white teenage girls no longer applies, said David S. Rosen, MD, MPH, who wrote a clinical report on the topic that was published in the December issue of Pediatrics. “It’s also happening to boys, young children, people of color and middle-aged women. It’s more of an equal opportunity disorder,” said Dr. Rosen, a professor of pediatrics, internal medicine and psychiatry at the University of Michigan.
Males, for example, now represent up to 10% of all cases of eating disorders. The number of children younger than 12 who are hospitalized for eating disorders increased 119% from 1999 to 2006, according to an analysis by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality cited in the report (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115584/). Young children who develop eating disorders are more susceptible to serious medical consequences such as stunted growth and organ damage, Dr. Rosen said.
Early intervention recommended
He urges physicians, nurses, parents, school social workers and others to intervene early. Health care professionals should take note when patients, particularly young ones, make derogatory comments about their appearance or talk about going on a diet. The report said screening questions about eating patterns and body image should be asked of all preteens and adolescents.
Fewer than 1% of adolescent girls in the U.S. have anorexia, and 1% to 2% percent have bulimia. Experts estimate that between 1% and 14% of Americans exhibit some physical and psychological symptoms of an eating disorder. Male and female athletes, including gymnasts, runners and wrestlers, and performers, such as dancers and models, may be more at risk.
The report said eating disorders may have more of a genetic link, similar to alcoholism and depression, than previously thought. The discovery that some children may be genetically predisposed to the condition may “help to take away some of the blame or stigma,” Dr. Rosen said. With more children obese, physicians should choose their words carefully when counseling a child about his or her weight, Dr. Rosen said. He sees young patients with eating disorders who claim their problems with food began when their doctor told them to lose weight.
Dr. Rosen recommends that physicians discuss healthy eating practices, not dieting, with patients and focus on a healthy lifestyle, not losing weight. “There’s a perception that, like alcoholism, [an eating disorder] never goes away and that the best you can do is keep it under control,” he said. But if caught early, “most children and teens can expect to recover completely.”
OTHERWISE healthy teenage girls who diet regularly show worrying signs of malnutrition, Sydney researchers have found. The largest study of its kind shows pressure to be thin could be causing teenage girls serious harm, potentially preventing them from developing properly. The study of 480 girls, between 14 and 17, attending school in Sydney’s northern suburbs and on the central coast, found those who dieted often showed subtle but chronic signs of undernourishment compared to those who occasionally, or never, dieted. The girls were deficient in a number of nutrients and biochemicals, including calcium and protein, as well as haemoglobin, which is vital for transporting oxygen in the blood.
The study leader, Dr Ross Grant, said the teenagers were not getting the nutrients they needed to build their bodies. ”When you get through your adolescent years you should be the healthiest you are ever going to be, and these girls are not giving themselves the best chance to be healthy,” he said. Many students in the study were dieting even though, on average, they were not overweight. ”These are pretty much your average girls on the north shore. They are going to school and they are not unwell in any other way,” Dr Grant said. The low levels of calcium were particularly worrying, he said. ”Calcium is used as a signalling molecule for every cell in the body. If you are not getting enough calcium in your diet then your body starts to get it from wherever it can, which is the bones.”
Most researchers believe the amount of calcium consumed in a person’s teenage years sets the basic level available for the rest of their life. Media messages presenting excessively thin women as having an ideal body shape, or public health campaigns making girls overly aware of not consuming too many calories, could be to blame for dieting, said Dr Grant, who is the head of the Australasian Research Institute at the Sydney Adventist Hospital.
Christine Morgan, the chief executive of the Butterfly Foundation, an eating disorders advocacy group, said she was horrified, but not surprised, by the findings. ”Diets, by their very nature, are telling you to disregard your physiological appetite,” she said. ”These homespun diets result in us not putting the nutrients we need into our bodies.” Disordered eating – irregular eating behaviours that do not fall into the category of an eating disorder – had more than doubled in the past 10 years. ”It has become the norm,” Ms Morgan said.
Japanese women who eat three or more bowls of rice a day face a 50 percent greater risk of developing diabetes than those who eat one bowl, according to research by the National Cancer Center and other institutions. Although it has long been known that consuming large amounts of carbohydrates can increase the risk of developing the disease, the study was the first of its kind to explore the connection between eating rice and developing diabetes.
Conducted over five years from the early 1990s, the study covered about 60,000 people aged 45 to 74 in Iwate, Nagano, Ibaraki, Okinawa and four other prefectures. Of the subjects, 1,103–625 men and 478 women–developed diabetes during the study period.
Women who ate three bowls of rice a day were 1.48 times more likely to develop diabetes than those who ate one serving daily, the study found. Eating four or more bowls of rice a day raised the risk of women developing diabetes to 1.65 times that of women who ate only one bowl of rice a day. However, among women who performed physical labor or exercised vigorously for at least one hour a day, there was no significant difference in their risk of developing diabetes regardless of whether they habitually gorged on the grain.
For men, there was less evidence of a connection between rice intake and diabetes risk.
But regardless of gender, the less physical exercise a person did, the higher their risk of developing the disease.
While it is possible that eating a lot of rice can contribute to the onset of diabetes in some women, the study produced no conclusive evidence that overindulging is a direct cause of diabetes. Researchers at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine who analyzed the study’s results said it was important to monitor rice intake as part of maintaining a balanced diet.
A GOURMET meal may be as bad for you as a Big Mac, according to diabetes researchers who are alarmed at the rise in young men diagnosed with the disease.Corporate lunches and dinners at restaurants dishing up rich, fatty foods, coupled with sedentary working lives are being blamed for the trend. Dr Neale Cohen, of the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, said many patients were unaware meals at upmarket restaurants were often as high in fat, salt and sugar as fast food.
''Eating out is really code for eating badly,'' Dr Cohen said. ''Whether it's a fine French restaurant or McDonald's, it's the type of food that causes the problem.'' He said doctors at the institute are seeing men as young as 40 affected by type 2 diabetes, which is often triggered by obesity and linked to poor diet. ''Many of my patients will eat out three or four times a week for work and we are seeing 40-year-old businessmen who are in real trouble. To have diabetes at that age and otherwise be perfectly well with very little family history, is a really worrying thing.''
Dr Cohen recommends his patients only eat out once a week but said the ''MasterChef effect'' was encouraging people to re-create the elaborate dishes at home.