All Posts tagged doctor

Skin Conditions

Everyone gets the odd spot, but longer-term skin conditions can affect your level of self-confidence, especially if they are on your face. If you are suffering from acne or dry skin, don't worry. There are lots of easy treatments around that can help. Seeing a dietitian like Nastaran to improve your diet may also help with Skin Conditions.

Spots

Most people get spots, and they do always seem to break out when you really don't want them to. They're caused by your glands producing too much sebum – a substance that your body produces naturally to stop your hair drying out. Too much sebum makes your skin oily and causes spots.

Spots usually go away, but there are some things you can do to make them disappear a bit quicker:

  • wash with an anti-bacterial face wash, instead of soap or shower gel, until the spots have gone
  • don't squeeze them, as this can spread the infection and cause more spot outbreaks
  • drinking a couple of pints of water a day can help

If your spots don't seem to be clearing up, you may be suffering from acne. Acne can be a more serious condition, so you should make an appointment with your doctor who can give you a check-up.

Acne

Acne is different from getting a few spots. It can appear on your back, shoulders and chest as well as your face and can sometimes be painful. Whether or not you suffer from acne doesn't depend on your level of personal hygiene; it can sometimes run in the family or it can be caused by high levels of stress.

Some people can get relatively mild forms of acne, where outbreaks are months apart. Others can get quite serious forms of the condition that can lead to scars. Although some sufferers get rid of acne by their early 20s, some people with very sensitive skin can still have the condition a number of years later.

Acne can also affect you emotionally. Sufferers of the condition can often get teased or bullied in school or college. It can also affect someone's self-confidence or body image and can cause stress – which in turn can make acne outbreaks even more severe.

Although special face washes and creams can help some people, serious acne usually needs to be treated with specialist medical treatments. These treatments are only available with a prescription. Make an appointment to see your doctor who can diagnose how serious the acne is decide the best course of action. Your doctor will also be able to talk to you about how to deal with any emotional distress you've suffered.

Dry skin

Patches of dry skin can affect anyone, especially when the weather turns colder and the wind starts to gust. Dry skin can form anywhere, but it's most common on your face, as that's the area that exposed to the cold air.

Using a moisturiser can help, as can using a lip balm if your lips are chapped. If your dry skin lasts for a long time and is itchy or feels hot when you touch it, go and see your doctor. They may be able to prescribe special creams that help more serious forms of dry skin like eczema or dermatitis.

Shaving rash

Teenage boys who shave may find that they get a rash on their chin or neck after shaving. Although it's not painful, you may find it becomes itchy and irritating.

Using moisturiser after you've finished shaving stops your skin from drying out. Using an aftershave that doesn't contain any alcohol can also help if you've got particularly sensitive skin.

Source: Directgov. Reproduced with permission.

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Clearing Up Confusion

People with lactose intolerance do not produce enough of the enzyme lactase to break down lactose (the form of sugar naturally found in milk). Instead, when people with lactose intolerance ingest large amounts of dairy products, or foods or medicines containing lactose, lactose stays in the intestinal tract until it reaches the colon where it can cause gas, bloating, stomach cramps or diarrhea.

Last February, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) released a statement on lactose intolerance and health to provide health care providers, patients and the general public with the latest information on the topic.

“What many people fail to understand is that lactose intolerance is not an all-or-nothing situation,” says Susan Nitzke, professor of Nutritional Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and nutrition specialist with the University of Wisconsin-Extension.

Nitzke points out that many people with lactose intolerance can consume small amounts of lactose–for example, a half cup of milk or yogurt–without experiencing any symptoms. “This is especially true if the milk or other lactose-containing food is consumed with a meal,” she says.

Nitzke urges people to consult their doctor or a dietitian (like Nastaran) before making drastic dietary changes for suspected lactose intolerance. Your doctor may do a blood, breath or stool test to find out if lactose intolerance is the true cause of your digestive problems.

Milk and dairy foods provide many important nutrients. Milk is a well-known source of calcium and vitamin D. “Dairy products are also excellent sources of protein, potassium and many other vitamins and minerals,” says Mallory Koenings, a graduate student in the Department of Nutritional Sciences at UW-Madison.

Because dairy products contain so many important nutrients, even people who are lactose-intolerant are urged to consider alternatives within the milk food group, such as yogurt or lactose-free milk.

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Healthy Eating for older adults

How Much Should I Eat?

How much you should eat depends on how active you are. If you eat more calories than your body uses, you gain weight.

What are calories? Calories are a way to count how much energy is in food. You use the energy you get from food to do the things you need to do each day.

Just counting calories is not enough for making healthy choices. For example, a medium banana, 1 cup of flaked cereal, 2-1/2 cups of cooked spinach, 1 tablespoon of peanut butter, or 1 cup of 1% milk–all have roughly the same number of calories. But, the foods are different in many ways. Some have more of the nutrients you might need than others do. Milk gives you more calcium than a banana, and peanut butter gives you more protein than cereal. And a banana is likely to make you feel fuller than a tablespoon of peanut butter.

How many calories do people over age 50 need each day?

A woman:

  • who is not physically active needs about 1,600 calories
  • who is somewhat active needs about 1,800 calories
  • who has an active lifestyle needs about 2,000-2,200 calories

A man:

  • who is not physically active needs about 2,000 calories
  • who is somewhat active needs about 2,200-2,400 calories
  • who has an active lifestyle needs about 2,400-2,800 calories

Here's a tip: Get at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity on most, if not all days of the week.

How Much Is on My Plate?

How does the food on your plate compare to how much you should be eating? For example, one very large chicken breast could be more from the meat/beans group than you are supposed to eat in a whole day. Here are some general ways you can check:

3 ounces of meat, poultry, or fish = deck of cards

½ cup of fruit, rice, pasta, or ice cream = ½ baseball

1 cup of salad greens = baseball

1-1/2 ounces of cheese = 4 stacked dice

1 teaspoon of butter or margarine = 1 dice (or die)

2 tablespoons of peanut butter = ping pong ball

1 cup of flaked cereal or a baked potato = fist

Read the Label

At first, reading labels on many packaged foods may take some time. The facts there can help you make better food choices. Labels have a Nutrition Facts panel. It tells how much protein, carbohydrates, fats, sodium, key vitamins and minerals, and calories are in a serving. The panel also shows how many servings are in the package—be careful because sometimes what you think is one serving is really more.

Each can, bottle, or package label also has an ingredients list. Items are listed from largest amount to smallest.

Having Problems with Food?

Does your favorite chicken dish taste different? As you grow older, your sense of taste and sense of smell may change. Foods may seem to have lost flavor. Also, medicines can change how food tastes. They can also make you feel less hungry. Talk to your doctor about whether there is a different medicine you could use. Try extra spices or herbs on your foods to add flavor.

As you get older, you might not be able to eat all the foods you used to eat. For example, some people become lactose intolerant. They have symptoms like stomach pain, gas, or diarrhea after eating or drinking something with milk in it, like ice cream. Most can eat small amounts of such food or can try yogurt, buttermilk, or hard cheese. Lactose-free foods are available now also. Your doctor can test to see if you are lactose intolerant.

Is it harder to chew? Maybe your dentures need to fit better, or your gums are sore. If so, a dentist can help you. Until then, you might want to eat softer foods that are easier to chew.

Do I Need to Drink Water?

With age, you may lose some of your sense of thirst. Drink plenty of liquids like water, juice, milk, and soup. Don't wait until you feel thirsty. Try to drink several large glasses of water each day. Your urine should be pale yellow. If it is a bright or dark yellow, you need to drink more liquids.

Be sure to talk with your doctor if you have trouble controlling your urine. Don't stop drinking liquids. There are better ways to help bladder control problems.

What about Fibre?

Fibre is found in foods from plants—fruits, vegetables, beans, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. Eating more fibre might prevent stomach or intestine problems, like constipation. It might also help lower cholesterol, as well as blood sugar.

It is better to get fibre from food than dietary supplements. Start adding more fibre slowly. That will help avoid unwanted gas. Here are some tips for adding fibre:

  • Eat cooked dry beans, peas, and lentils often.
  • Leave skins on your fruit and vegetables if possible.
  • Choose whole fruit over fruit juice.
  • Eat whole-grain breads and cereals.
  • Drink plenty of liquids to help fibre move through your intestines.

Should I Cut Back on Salt?

The usual way people get sodium is by eating salt. The body needs sodium, but too much can make blood pressure go up in some people. Most fresh food contains some sodium. Salt is added to many canned and prepared foods.

People tend to eat more salt than they need. If you are over age 50, about 2/3 of a teaspoon of table salt–1500 milligrams (mg) of sodium–is all you need each day. That includes all the sodium in your food and drink, not just the salt you add when cooking or eating. If your doctor tells you to use less salt, ask about a salt substitute. Some contain sodium. Also, don't add salt during cooking or at the table, and avoid salty snacks and processed foods. Look for the word sodium, not salt, on the Nutrition Facts panel. Choose foods labeled “low-sodium.” Often, the amount of sodium in the same kind of food can vary greatly between brands.

Here's a tip: Spices, herbs, and lemon juice can add flavor to your food, so you won't miss the salt.

What about Fat?

Fat in your diet comes from two places–the fat already found in food and the fat added when you cook. Fat gives you energy and helps your body use certain vitamins, but it is high in calories. To lower the fat in your diet:

Choose cuts of meat, fish, or poultry (with the skin removed) with less fat. Trim off any extra fat before cooking. Use low-fat dairy products and salad dressings. Use non-stick pots and pans, and cook without added fat. Choose an unsaturated or monosaturated vegetable oil (check the label) or a nonfat cooking spray. Instead of frying, broil, roast, bake, stir-fry, steam, microwave, or boil foods.

Keeping Food Safe

Older people must take extra care to keep their food safe to eat. As you get older, you are less able to fight off infections, and some foods could make you very sick. Be sure to fully cook eggs, pork, fish, shellfish, poultry, and hot dogs. Talk to your doctor or Nastaran about foods to avoid. These might include raw sprouts, some deli meats, and foods that are not pasteurized (heated to destroy disease-causing organisms), like some milk products and juices in the refrigerated section of the grocery.

Before cooking, handle raw food with care. Keep it apart from foods that are already cooked or won't be cooked, like salad, fruit, or bread. Be careful with tools–your knife, plate, or cutting board, for example. Don't cut raw meat with the same knife you will use to make a salad. Rinse raw fruits and vegetables before eating. Use hot soapy water to wash your hands, tools, and work surfaces as you cook.

As you get older, you can't depend on sniffing or tasting food to tell if it has gone bad. Try putting dates on foods in your refrigerator. Check the “use by” date on foods. If in doubt, toss it out.

Here's a tip: Make sure food gets into the refrigerator no more than 2 hours after it is cooked—whether you made it yourself or brought it home from a restaurant.

Can I Afford to Eat Right?

If your budget is limited, it might take some thought and planning to be able to pay for the foods you should eat. Here are some suggestions. First, buy only the foods you need. A shopping list will help with that. Before shopping, plan your meals, and check your supply of staples like flour and cereal. Make sure you have some canned or frozen foods in case you do not feel like cooking or cannot go out. Powdered, canned, or ultra-pasteurized milk in a shelf carton can be stored easily.

Think about how much of a food you will use. A large size may be cheaper per unit, but it is only a bargain if you use all of it. Try to share large packages of food with a friend. Frozen vegetables in bags save money because you can use small amounts and keep the rest frozen. If a package of meat or fresh produce is too large, ask a store employee to repackage it in a smaller size.

Here are other ways to keep your food costs down:

  • Plain (generic) labels or store brands often cost less than name brands.
  • Plan your meals around food that is on sale.
  • Prepare more of the foods you enjoy, and quickly refrigerate the leftovers to eat in a day or two.
  • Divide leftovers into small servings, label and date, and freeze to use within a few months.

 

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Kids and Type 2 Diabetes

 

Type 2 Diabetes in Kids: Symptoms and Risk Factors

Type 2 diabetes is a condition that occurs when the body doesn't produce enough insulin or can't properly use the insulin that it produces. When the body can't respond normally to insulin, glucose builds up in the blood.

Type 2 diabetes sometimes is difficult to detect in children because symptoms may be mild or absent. However, symptoms still play a key role in diagnosing type 2 diabetes in children. These symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, tiredness or lack of energy, and acanthans nigricans (darkening of the skin between the fingers and toes and near the shoulder blades). If your child displays one of these symptoms, it doesn't necessarily mean he or she has type 2 diabetes, but a visit to the doctor is a good idea.

According to the ADA, risk factors for type 2 diabetes in children include

  • Being overweight—as many as 80 percent of children are overweight when diagnosed
  • Being older than 10 years of age and in middle-to-late puberty (although some children with type 2 diabetes are younger)
  • Having a family history of type 2 diabetes
  • Being a member of certain racial/ethnic groups 

Being Overweight: A Risk Your Family Can Avoid

The recent increase in type 2 diabetes among children parallels the rising number of overweight children. For that reason, some experts believe that being overweight is the most significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes in children. In a way, that's good news because being overweight is the one risk factor you and your family can take charge of.

A physically active lifestyle and good eating habits are central to preventing weight problems. If your child is already overweight, ask your child's doctor or Nastaran for advice on the best treatment plan.

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Kids and food allergies

 

Tips for Managing Food Allergy

Get a professional diagnosis. Don't try to diagnose a food allergy yourself. If you suspect that your child has a food allergy, discuss this with your doctor. He or she can advise you accordingly and may refer you to an allergist for additional testing and treatment if needed. You should work with your doctor and/or allergist to develop an action plan for managing the allergy through indicating which foods your child should avoid, and possibly prescribing medication, such as an antihistamine or, for severe reactions, self-injectable epinephrine (EpiPen® or Twinject®).

Pass around the plan. Give your child's food allergy action plan to people who regularly see your child, including relatives, caregivers and their friends' parents.

See an Accredited Practicing Dietitian. An APD like Nastaran can help you and your child identify foods and ingredients to avoid, and develop an eating plan to ensure your child gets all the nutrients needed to grow and develop properly. For example, if your child is allergic to milk, the dietitian will recommend other calcium-containing foods and beverages.

Always read food labels. Always read food labels to see if the product contains any of the eight major allergens, or other ingredients your child is allergic to. Since food and beverage companies continually make improvements, read the label every time you purchase a product. Teach your child how to read labels, too.

Get support at school. Meet with staff at your child's school to review and distribute your child's food allergy action plan. At minimum, involve your child's primary teacher, the school nurse (if there is one), and key food service staff. Make sure all supervisory staff your child sees during the school day and during after-school activities have a copy of the plan. It is highly recommended that school administrators, teachers, and even food service staff are aware of the food allergy action plan in the absence of a school nurse.

Be cafeteria cautious. Go over the school lunch menu with your child to identify foods to avoid. Work with food service staff to plan substitutions or pack a lunch for your child to take to school. Remind your child not to share or trade food with others and make sure they know which staff can help if they have questions about a food, or if they have a reaction to a food. Be sure your school food service staff has copies of the School Foodservice and Food Allergies information sheet and review it with them when you talk to them about your child's food allergies.

Ask questions when eating out. Most life-threatening allergic reactions to foods occur when eating away from the home. Explain your child's situation and needs clearly to your host or food server—and teach your child to do the same when you're not with them. If necessary, ask to speak with the chef or manager. Some fast food restaurants provide a list of the ingredients in their menu items, as well as information on whether any of the eight major allergens are present.

Keep an allergy-safe kitchen. Rather than singling out your food-allergic child, prepare allergy-free recipes the whole family will enjoy.

Make peers “allergy allies.” Encourage your child to talk openly with friends and classmates about their allergy, what foods they must avoid, and what could happen to them if they don't. Suggest that your child enlist their friends in helping them “stay on the alert” for foods in question so they won't get sick.

Most importantly, be ready for emergencies. Teach your child the possible symptoms of a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), such as difficulty breathing or swallowing, or tingling in the hands, feet, lips or scalp. If they experience symptoms after eating a food, make sure they know to immediately call 0-0-0 and, if prescribed by your allergist, use their medication to treat the reaction. If possible, have your child wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that identifies the specific allergy. Every few months, “role play” an allergic reaction to make sure your child knows what to do.

For more information and resources on managing food allergies see Nastaran or your doctor.

Source: International Food Information Council

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Eating Guidelines for Multiple Sclerosis

 

  • Maintain a healthy weight. If unwanted weight loss or weight gain occurs, contact your doctor or dietitian

Reduced mobility can result in overweight or obesity, because you are using fewer calories. Some medications, like steroids and antidepressants can also cause weight gain.

Being underweight and having poor nutrition can be caused by

– reduced mobility and feeling tired, which can make shopping, cooking and eating difficult

– difficulty getting food or drinks to the mouth

– poor appetite, and

– difficulty swallowing.

If you are having any of these symptoms and they are keeping you from eating, discuss your symptoms with your doctor.

  • When you have MS, it is especially important to get the recommended amounts (the Dietary Reference Intakes, or DRIs) of the following vitamins and minerals. If your doctor has diagnosed that you are deficient in any of these, you may be advised to take more. Do not take amounts higher than what is recommended because this can be harmful.

– Calcium and vitamin D. People with MS have a higher risk of low bone mineral density and breaking bones. This may be due to low vitamin D and calcium in the diet, or other factors such reduced physical activity, such as walking. Good food sources of calcium include dairy products (milk, yogurt and cheese), fortified soy and rice beverages, fortified juices, tofu with added calcium and canned fish with the bones. Good food sources of vitamin D include milk, fortified soy and rice beverages, fortified juices, fatty fish, such as salmon, and eggs. If you do not eat these foods daily, you should discuss adding a daily supplement with your doctor or dietitian. 

– Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people with MS. Low levels of vitamin B12 can cause a type of anemia that can make you feel tired. Good food sources of vitamin B12 are dairy products (milk, yogurt and cheese), eggs, meat, fish, poultry, and fortified soy and rice beverages. It is recommended that people over 50 take a vitamin B12 supplement, because as you get older, you don't absorb the vitamin B12 from food very well. The amount of vitamin B12 in a multivitamin is usually enough.

– Zinc and selenium. Zinc and selenium deficiencies are common in people with MS. Zinc is needed for the growth and repair of body cells. Selenium works as an antioxidant to protect body cells from damage. Good food sources of zinc are meat, seafood, dried beans, peas, and lentils, and whole grains. Good food sources of selenium are Brazil nuts, seafood, fish and shellfish, liver and kidney. If these are foods that you don't eat regularly, you may need a supplement. The amounts in a multivitamin mineral supplement are usually enough.

  • Many people with MS try different herbal or nutritional supplements hoping these will improve their symptoms or prevent MS from getting worse. Ginkgo biloba has been studied in people with MS, and while early studies show some benefit, larger studies need to be done before it can be recommended. Gingko biloba has many side effects and shouldn't be taken by people who have bleeding disorders, who are taking blood thinning medication, or who are planning surgery.

Other supplements, including St. John's wort, ginseng, echinacea and valerian, have not been studied in people with MS, so it is not known if they are effective or safe. Because echinacea can stimulate the immune system, it might make MS symptoms worse.

 

Source: Dietitians of Canada. Reproduced with Permission.

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