All Posts tagged development

Increased B vitamins may ease PMS

Higher intakes of the B vitamins thiamine and riboflavin from the diet may reduce the incidence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) by about 35 percent, suggest new findings. According to a new paper published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, the link between B vitamins and PMS is biologically plausible since B vitamins such as thiamine and riboflavin are known to play important roles in the synthesis of various neurotransmitters involved in PMS.

While most women experience mild emotional or physical premenstrual symptoms, as many as 8-20 per cent of women experience symptoms severe enough to meet the definition of premenstrual syndrome, which can substantially interfere with daily activities and relationships. The new study, performed by researchers from the University of Massachusetts, Harvard, and the University of Iowa, indicates that increase intakes of certain B vitamins from food sources may help reduce the incidence of PMS.

Using data from 1,057 women with PMS and 1,968 women without PMS participating in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort, the researchers found that women with the highest average intakes of riboflavin two to four years prior to diagnosis were associated with a 35 percent lower incidence of PMS than women with the lowest average intakes. On the other hand, the researchers did not observe any benefits with other B vitamins, including niacin, folate, B6, and B12. In addition, supplemental intakes of these vitamins was not linked to PMS incidence, they added. “We observed a significantly lower risk of PMS in women with high intakes of thiamine and riboflavin from food sources only,” wrote the researchers. “Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of B vitamins in the development of premenstrual syndrome.”

Beyond the B vitamins, there is also some evidence for the potential of a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D to lower the risk of developing PMS, a condition that affects up to a fifth of all women. According to a study published in 2005 in the Archives of Internal Medicine (Vol. 165, pp1246-1252), researchers from the University of Massachusetts and GlaxoSmithKline reported for the first time that calcium and vitamin D may help prevent the initial development of PMS.

Source: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.009530 “Dietary B vitamin intake and incident premenstrual syndrome” Authors: P.O. Chocano-Bedoya, J.E. Manson, S.E. Hankinson, W.C. Willett, S.R. Johnson, L. Chasan-Taber, A.G. Ronnenberg, C. Bigelow, E.R. Bertone-Johnson

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Protective properties of green tea

Regularly drinking green tea could protect the brain against developing Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia. The study, published in the academic journal Phytomedicine, also suggests this ancient Chinese remedy could play a vital role in protecting the body against cancer. Led by Dr Ed Okello, the Newcastle team wanted to know if the protective properties of green tea – which have previously been shown to be present in the undigested, freshly brewed form of the drink – were still active once the tea had been digested. Digestion is a vital process which provides our bodies with the nutrients we need to survive. But, says Dr Okello, it also means that just because the food we put into our mouths is generally accepted to contain health-boosting properties, we can’t assume these compounds will ever be absorbed by the body.

“What was really exciting about this study was that we found when green tea is digested by enzymes in the gut, the resulting chemicals are actually more effective against key triggers of Alzheimer’s development than the undigested form of the tea,” explains Dr Okello, based in the School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development at Newcastle University and executive director of the university’s Medicinal Plant Research Group. “In addition to this, we also found the digested compounds had anti-cancer properties, significantly slowing down the growth of the tumour cells which we were using in our experiments.”

As part of the research, the Newcastle team worked in collaboration with Dr Gordon McDougall of the Plant Products and Food Quality Group at the Scottish Crop Research Institute in Dundee, who developed technology which simulates the human digestive system. It is this which made it possible for the team to analyse the protective properties of the products of digestion. Two compounds are known to play a significant role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease – hydrogen peroxide and a protein known as beta-amyloid. Previous studies have shown that compounds known as polyphenols, present in black and green tea, possess neuroprotective properties, binding with the toxic compounds and protecting the brain cells.

When ingested, the polyphenols are broken down to produce a mix of compounds and it was these the Newcastle team tested in their latest research. “It’s one of the reasons why we have to be so careful when we make claims about the health benefits of various foods and supplements,” explains Dr Okello. “There are certain chemicals we know to be beneficial and we can identify foods which are rich in them but what happens during the digestion process is crucial to whether these foods are actually doing us any good.” Carrying out the experiments in the lab using a tumour cell model, they exposed the cells to varying concentrations of the different toxins and the digested green tea compounds.

Dr Okello explained: “The digested chemicals protected the cells, preventing the toxins from destroying the cells. “We also saw them affecting the cancer cells, significantly slowing down their growth. Green tea has been used in Traditional Chinese medicine for centuries and what we have here provides the scientific evidence why it may be effective against some of the key diseases we face today.”

The next step is to discover whether the beneficial compounds are produced during digestion after healthy human volunteers consume tea polyphenols. The team has already received funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) to take this forward. Dr Okello adds: “There are obviously many factors which together have an influence on diseases such as cancer and dementia – a good diet, plenty of exercise and a healthy lifestyle are all important. “But I think it’s fair to say that at least one cup of green tea every day may be good for you and I would certainly recommend it.”

(Source: Newcastle University: Phytomedicine)

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Curry protects against fatty liver disease

Curcumin, a natural phytochemical from turmeric that is used as a spice in curry, holds promise in treating or preventing liver damage from an advanced form of a condition known as fatty liver disease, new Saint Louis University research suggests. Curcumin is contained in turmeric, a plant used by the Chinese to make traditional medicines for thousands of years. SLU's recent study highlights its potential in countering an increasingly common kind of fatty liver disease called non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Linked to obesity and weight gain, NASH affects 3 to 4 percent of U.S. adults and can lead to a type of liver damage called liver fibrosis and possibly cirrhosis, liver cancer and death.

“My laboratory studies the molecular mechanism of liver fibrosis and is searching for natural ways to prevent and treat this liver damage,” said Anping Chen, Ph.D., corresponding author and director of research in the pathology department of Saint Louis University. The findings were published in the September 2010 issue of Endocrinology. “While research in an animal model and human clinical trials are needed, our study suggests that curcumin may be an effective therapy to treat and prevent liver fibrosis, which is associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).”

High levels of blood leptin, glucose and insulin are commonly found in human patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, which might contribute to NASH-associated liver fibrosis. Chen's most recent work tested the effect of curcumin on the role of high levels of leptin in causing liver fibrosis in vitro, or in a controlled lab setting. “Leptin plays a critical role in the development of liver fibrosis,” he said.

High levels of leptin activate hepatic stellate cells, which are the cells that cause overproduction of the collagen protein, a major feature of liver fibrosis. The researchers found that among other activities, curcumin eliminated the effects of leptin on activating hepatic stellate cells, which short-circuited the development of liver damage (Courtesy of EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS).

Reference: Youcai Tang, Anping Chen. Curcumin Protects Hepatic Stellate Cells against Leptin-Induced Activation in Vitro by Accumulating Intracellular Lipids. Endocrinology Vol. 151, No. 9 4168-4177 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting 9 4168-4177 end_of_the_skype_highlighting. doi:10.1210/en.2010-0191

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US NIAID Issues Food Allergy Management Guidelines

A coordinating committee representing 34 professional organizations, advocacy groups and federal agencies oversaw the development of the guidelines. The coordinating committee selected a 25-member expert panel, chaired by Joshua Boyce, M.D., co-director of the Inflammation and Allergic Disease Research Section at Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital. The panel used an independent, systematic literature review of food allergy and their own expert clinical opinions to prepare draft guidelines. Public comments were invited and considered as well during the development of the guidelines.

“These guidelines are an important starting point toward a goal of a more cogent, evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and management of food allergy,” says Dr. Boyce. “We believe that they provide healthcare professionals with a clear-cut definition of what constitutes a food allergy and a logical framework for the appropriate use of diagnostic testing and accurate interpretation of the results.”

Additional topics covered by the guidelines include the prevalence of food allergy, natural history of food allergy and closely associated diseases, and management of acute allergic reactions to food, including anaphylaxis, a severe whole-body reaction. They also identify gaps about what is known about food allergy.

“The food allergy guidelines provide a rigorous assessment of the state of the science, and clearly identify the areas where evidence is lacking and where research needs to be pursued,” says Daniel Rotrosen, M.D., director of the Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation at NIAID. “This information will help shape our research agenda for the near future.”

Food allergy has become a serious health concern in the United States. Recent studies estimate that food allergy affects nearly 5 percent of children younger than 5 years old and 4 percent of teens and adults. Its prevalence appears to be on the rise. Not only can food allergy be associated with immediate and sometimes life-threatening consequences, it also can affect an individual's health, nutrition, development and quality of life. While several potential treatments appear promising, currently no treatments for food allergy exist and avoidance of the food is the only way to prevent complications of the disease.

More information on the guidelines may be found at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/foodAllergy/clinical/Pages/default.aspx

 

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Cause of Osteoporosis in Celiac patients

People with celiac disease may develop osteoporosis due to immune-system attacks on bone tissue (N Engl J Med. 2009; 361:1459-1465). Although osteoporosis is a known complication of celiac disease, scientists have always believed that it occurred because celiac patients cannot properly absorb calcium and vitamin D from their diet and were therefore unable to maintain healthy bone tissue.

At the heart of this development is the protein osteoprotegerin, which plays a crucial role in maintaining bone health by controlling the rate at which bone tissue is removed. Researchers from the United Kingdom's University of Edinburgh and University of Liverpool detected autoantibodies against osteoprotegerin in several patients with celiac disease.

“Such autoantibodies may be associated with the development of high-turnover osteoporosis, but whether autoantibodies against osteoprotegerin commonly contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in patients with celiac disease remains to be determined,” the investigators conclude.

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Immune system important in fight against stomach cancer

The team looked at how NK cells (natural killer cells – a type of immune cell) reacted to Helicobacter pylori. These cells are an important part of the immune system as they can both recognise and kill cells that are infected by viruses and bacteria as well as tumour cells.

“We found that a special type of NK cells was active against the stomach ulcer bacterium,” says Åsa Lindgren. “These NK cells produced cytokines, which are the immune system's signal substances and act as a defence against the intruder.”

The researchers' results suggest that NK cells can play an important role in the immune defence against Helicobacter pylori. Previous research has also shown that a high proportion of NK cells in tumour tissue has contributed to a better prognosis and longer survival for patients with stomach cancer, as these cells help to eliminate the tumour cells.

The researchers therefore believe that activation of the NK cells can play a key role in stopping tumours from developing, and that reduced NK-cell activity can increase the risk of cancer developing. Åsa Lindgren hopes that these findings can be used to develop new ways of diagnosing and treating stomach cancer.

“This would make it possible to diagnose stomach cancer at an early stage, which, in turn, could mean a better prognosis for the patients.”

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Emotions can predict future eating disorders

To this end, the following emotional variables have been specified: those relative to emotional experience —the frequency of positive and negative emotions, anxiety, low self-esteem and the influence of diet, weight and the body shape on the emotional state—; negative perception of emotions, negative attitude to emotional expression, alexithymia —the inability to identify own emotions and to express them verbally— and the manner of controlling negative emotions.

Moreover, another variable has also been taken into account: the need for control. This variable is not strictly emotional, but has a clear emotional component, given that people with a high need for control, experience anxiety and unwellness when perceiving lack of control.

Study of women

In order to undertake the study, 433 women took part; 143 of these suffered from some kind of eating disorder and 145 in risk of contracting one. The results of the study show that, in general, the majority of the variables put forward can be used as predictive of suffering an eating disorder. The variables which, above all, alert to greater risk of developing an eating disorder are when the emotional state of the person is excessively influenced by diet, weight and body shape, when self-esteem is low, and when, in anxiety situations, emotions are not expressed and the person tends to act in an impulsive manner.

These results have important implications, above all when drawing up prevention programmes for eating disorders. With the data obtained, it can be said that many of the emotional variables dealt with in Ms Pascual's work should be taken into account when drawing up these prevention programmes.

Serious illnesses

Eating disorders are very serious illnesses that have dire consequences for the sufferer, both physically as well as psychologically and socially, and there are disorders that are evermore widespread. Much research has been undertaken in order to find out the factors involved in their development, but the role played by the various emotional variables at the onset of these disorders has hardly been investigated. This thesis presented at the UPV/EHU focused on this matter more deeply.

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Regular Use of Asprin Increases Risk Of Crohn’s Disease

People who take aspirin regularly for a year or more may be at an increased risk of developing Crohn's disease, according to a new study by the University of East Anglia (UEA). Led by Dr Andrew Hart of UEA's School of Medicine, the research was presented for the first time at the Digestive Disease Week conference in New Orleans.

Crohn's disease is a serious condition affecting 60,000 people in the UK and 500,000 people in the US. It is characterized by inflammation and swelling of any part of the digestive system. This can lead to debilitating symptoms and requires patients to take life-long medication. Some patients need surgery and some sufferers have an increased risk of bowel cancer.

Though there are likely to be many causes of the disease, previous work on tissue samples has shown that aspirin can have a harmful effect on the bowel. To investigate this potential link further, the UEA team followed 200,000 volunteers aged 30-74 in the UK, Sweden, Denmark, Germany and Italy. The volunteers had been recruited for the EPIC study (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) between 1993 and 1997.

The volunteers were all initially well, but by 2004 a small number had developed Crohn's disease. When looking for differences in aspirin use between those who did and did not develop the disease, the researchers discovered that those taking aspirin regularly for a year or more were around five times more likely to develop Crohn's disease.

The study also showed that aspirin use had no effect on the risk of developing ulcerative colitis — a condition similar to Crohn's disease.

“This is early work but our findings do suggest that the regular use of aspirin could be one of many factors which influences the development of this distressing disease in some patients,” said Dr Hart.

“Aspirin does have many beneficial effects, however, including helping to prevent heart attacks and strokes. I would urge aspirin users to continue taking this medication since the risk of aspirin users possibly developing Crohn's disease remains very low — only one in every 2000 users, and the link is not yet finally proved.”

Further work must now be done in other populations to establish whether there is a definite link and to check that aspirin use is not just a marker of another risk factor which is the real cause of Crohn's disease. The UEA team will also continue its wider research into other potential factors in the development of Crohn's disease, including diet.

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Lancet Series Examines TB Worldwide

One article warns that the absence of major investments in new technology and prevention and treatment tools could make drug-resistant strains of TB the “dominant” form of TB over the coming decades, according to the news service (5/18). The article notes “that India and China had around 50 percent of the global MDR-TB burden, followed by Russia with 9 percent,” Reuters writes. The authors write, “The future possibility of strains that are totally resistant to all anti-tuberculosis drugs is not inconceivable.”

“In other studies in the series … scientists said the combined impact of new drugs, vaccines, and diagnostic tests could cut worldwide incidence of TB by 94 percent by 2050,” the news service reports. According to experts, only about a quarter of the funding needed for drug research and development is available.

“Development of new drugs for TB is lengthy, expensive, and risky, and the expected revenues are too small to justify commercial investment,” Zhenkun Ma of the Global Alliance for TB Drug Development and co-authors write in a paper. “New financing and market incentive mechanisms are needed.”

The journal also notes that “there are 11 potential TB vaccines being tested in human trials and up to 10 experimental medicines in the TB drug 'pipeline.' Since many drugs fail in late-stage trials, this handful of possibilities is unlikely to be enough,” Reuters reports (Kelland, 5/18).

The series also focused on the broader issues that contribute to the spread of TB, the Associated Press reports. “Experts said TB isn't only a medical problem, but is intertwined with poverty, as it spreads widely among people living in overcrowded, dirty places. They said TB programs need to go beyond health and include other sectors like housing, education and transportation,” the news service writes. Philip Stevens, a health policy expert at the International Policy Network, said the disease “cannot be tackled in isolation,” noting that the focus of control efforts should be on “economic growth, which is outside the control of the U.N.” (Cheng, 5/18).

“In the eighth and final paper … a call to action is made to a wide range of sectors to assist scale-up TB service delivery, research and control. The launch of The Lancet TB Observatory, which will monitor progress on key indicators on an ongoing basis, is also announced,” according to a Lancet press release. The Observatory, which is a collaboration between the Lancet, the Stop TB Parternship, the WHO and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, “will assess and monitor” TB research, financing and other information. In a comment discussing the Observatory, Lancet Editor-in-Chief Richard Horton and Executive Editor Pamela Das observe that currently “there is no formal mechanism to assess this information critically and independently. Nor is there any means to hold the various stakeholders in tuberculosis control to account” (5/18).

The series also includes comments about how to scale-up an integrated TB and HIV response, the burden of the disease in women and children and how migration patterns within and between countries contribute to the spread of TB. 

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Eating oily fish can protect women from infertility

 

Eating a diet of plenty of oily fish daily can protect women against infertility, says a new study. Researchers have carried out the study of 70,000 nurses and found those who ate the most tuna, salmon, mackerel and other fish high in omega-3 fatty acids were nearly 22 per cent less likely to develop endometriosis which is known to causes infertility.

However, the study found that those whose diets were heavily laden with harmful transfats – chemically altered vegetable oils – found in thousands of products from cakes and biscuits to pies and chips were 48 per cent more at risk of developing endometriosis. The condition arises when cells normally found in the womb lining attach themselves to other parts of the pelvic area, causing inflammation and often leading to infertility.

The study, the largest to have investigated the link between diet and endometriosis, followed the nurses for 12 years from 1989. It found while the total amount of fat consumed did not matter, the type did.

Gynaecologist Dr Stacey Missmer, of Harvard Medical School, Boston, said her findings, not only suggest that diet may be important in the development of endometriosis but also provide more evidence for eliminating trans fats, which are used to bulk up foods and increase their shelf life.

“Millions of women worldwide suffer from endometriosis. Many have been searching for something they can do for themselves, or their daughters, to reduce the risk of developing the disease. These findings suggest dietary changes may be something they can do. The results need to be confirmed by further research, but this study gives us a strong indication that we are on the right track in identifying food rich in omega-3 oils as protective for endometriosis and trans fats as detrimental,” she said.

The study is published in the 'Human Reproduction' journal.

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