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Effects of Grapefruit on Diabetes

Recent studies show that grapefruit and diabetes may share a close link. Researchers concluded that naringenin found in grapefruit may increase the body's sensitivity to insulin. This research was conducted only in the laboratory, and further studies are still needed. Grapefruit and diabetes may share a close link given some recent studies suggesting that eating of the fruit can help in controlling the disease. One recent report suggests that grapefruit may become an effective part of the treatment for type 2 diabetes as it contains the antioxidant Naringenin that can break down fats and increase a person's sensitivity to insulin.

The study also concluded that grapefruit is also capable of treating abnormal levels of cholesterol, warding off metabolic syndrome and improving a person's tolerance to glucose, factors that are all associated with diabetes. The study was conducted by scientists from the Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Engineering in Medicine and Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Although more research needs to be completed, grapefruit is a safe source of vitamins for diabetics. One-half of a grapefruit contains 52 calories and 13g of carbohydrates, and the fruit has a low rating on the glycemic index, indicating a lower propensity to drive up blood sugar levels.

Research

The antioxidant Naringenin is found in grapefruit and has been largely credited for its ability in heping to treat type 2 diabetes. Naringenin is specifically noted for being able to break down fatty acids in the liver, similar to what happens when a person undergoes fasting. Yaakov Nahmias, PhD of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem reports that the results of their study indicate that Naringenin antioxidant was found to be capable of breaking down fatty acids similar to those induced by significant amounts of fasting. It does so by activating nuclear receptors, a family of proteins that can cause the liver to break down fatty acids instead of storing them.

Another study conducted by researchers at the University of Western Ontario showed that Naringenin can correct increases in triglyceride and cholesterol levels, while resisting insulin resistance and normalizing glucose metabolism. The said study showed that Naringenin genetically reprograms the liver to burn up more excess fat, instead of storing it. The said study also showed that Naringenin is able to suppress appetite and decrease food intake, which are common strategies in controlling diabetes.

The study of MGH and Hebrew University scientists also noted that Naringenin can lower bad cholesterol called vLDL while able to cure several symptoms of type 2 diabetes.

Remains Unproven

Research on grapefruit and diabetes, however, has not yet been conducted on humans, and were only done in the laboratory on the liver cells of humans and rats. Until further studies are done to confirm the effects of grapefruit in the treatment of diabetes type 2 in humans, it is still not safe to conclude that the naringenin in grapefruits can indeed cure diabetes. Further studies are still needed to establish its efficacy as well as its overall effects in the body, including the negative effects it might have.

Thus, many health experts do not encourage patients with diabetes to increase their consumption of grapefruits or increase grape juice intake, especially if they are also taking medications. There are patients prescribed with some type of drugs to lower their cholesterol level who are advised not to drink grapefruit juice as it can increase risk of side effects.

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Taking exams: revision tips

By making a plan and organising your time, you can divide your revision into manageable chunks. This will increase your chances of remembering the important facts, and help you avoid last-minute stress.

Find out what you need to know

Make your revision plan as early as possible. This will allow you to work out how much time to spend revising each day and, just as importantly, when to take breaks.

The first step is to get organised: find out when your exam is, and work out how much time you have until then.

Write a revision checklist

Start by dividing the number of days you have until the exam by the number of topics you need to revise. Ask your teacher for a list of topics, or make your own by going through your notes.

Think about any topics that will need more revision time – perhaps you covered them in more detail, or you found them more difficult.

Make a revision plan

When you know how many days you need to spend revising each topic, you'll be able to make revision part of your daily routine. However, you need to be realistic:

  • set aside time on your plan for things you need to do, like going to school and mealtimes
  • split the remaining time into half-hour slots
  • break each topic on your revision checklist down into chunks that you can cover in 30 minutes, and fill your slots with these chunks

Reading your revision notes

When going over your notes, keep in mind what you're looking for:

  • read for detail when you need to a good understanding of the text – take it slowly and ask yourself questions while you're reading
  • 'skim' to get the general idea of a large piece of text – read each paragraph quickly, and identify the main ideas in each one
  • 'scan' to look for a specific piece of information – move quickly through the text, homing in on sub-headings, names, numbers, dates and quotes

Look after yourself

Regular breaks are important if you're going to stay alert while revising. A five-minute break every half-hour is better than a 30-minute break after five hours. Get up, make a drink, tidy your room, check your email – you'll come back refreshed and ready to carry on. Breaks will also help you absorb the information and avoid overload.

Make sure you include a leisure activity in your revision plan twice or three times a week. It's important to set aside time to take your mind off exams.

A healthy mind needs a healthy body, so look after yourself. Lots of sleep and regular exercise will help you stay alert. Your body needs fuel, so eat plenty of easily digestible foods – fresh vegetables and fruit will help keep your energy levels up.

Getting support

If you have any personal problems – for example, with relationships or bullying – there's help available. Try to get support before your revision suffers.

Source: Directgov. Reproduced with permission.

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