About 10 to 15 percent of children experience recurrent abdominal pain, the researchers said. The pain can be due to irritable bowel syndrome — which is usually relieved by defecation — or can be “functional abdominal pain,” which is not explained by another disease. While LGG has been tested before in children with abdominal pain, the studies were small and showed mixed results. The new study, which involved 141 children with irritable bowel syndrome or functional abdominal pain, was conducted in Italy between 2004 and 2008. Researchers gave the kids either the probiotic or a placebo for eight weeks. Neither the doctors nor the patients were aware which treatment they received.
Following the treatment, the patients were followed up for another 8 weeks. During the treatment and follow-up, the severity and frequency of abdominal pain decreased for both groups, but the probiotic group experienced a more drastic reduction. For instance, after 12 weeks, patients who took the probiotic reported experiencing, on average, 1.1 episodes of pain per week, compared with 3.7 weekly episodes before the treatment. Those who took the placebo reported experiencing 2.2 pain episodes per week, compared with 3.5 episodes initially.
And a greater percentage of parents of children who took the probiotic reported that their children experienced a decline in pain,compared with those whose kids took the placebo. Among kids who took the probiotic, it was mostly children with irritable bowel syndrome who showed improvements, the researchers said.
Why does it work?
The results suggest LGG may be specifically beneficial for those with irritable bowel syndrome, the researchers said. It's possible that children with irritable bowel syndrome have an imbalance of good and bad bacteria in their guts, which contributes to the pain, and the probiotics relieves pain by restoring the proper balance, Francavilla said. Probiotics have also been suggested to reduce inflammation in the gut, as well as stimulate the release of analgesic substances that relieve pain. The researchers noted they cannot be sure whether the beneficial effects will last for more than a few weeks after treatment is stopped.
The results were published in the journal Pediatrics.
Young premenopausal women with excessive amounts of visceral fat are at increased risk for osteoporosis, according to new research presented at the Radiological Society of North America 96th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting. For years, it was believed that obese women had a lower risk of developing osteoporosis and that the mechanical loading from excess weight was good for their bones. It now appears that having too much fat, particularly deep abdominal fat, might be damaging to bone health, Miriam A. Bredella, MD, from Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, told meeting attendees. “With this ongoing obesity epidemic, we were actually seeing more and more young women breaking their forearms or their wrists, and the single biggest risk factor in this group was actually increased body weight,” she told Medscape Medical News. “We thought we should look take a closer look at whether obesity really did protect against osteoporosis.”
Dr. Bredella and her team studied 50 premenopausal women whose mean body mass index was 30 kg/m2 (range, 19 to 46). The women underwent assessment of L4 bone marrow fat with magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy as a measurement of lumbar bone density. In addition, abdominal subcutaneous, visceral, and total fat depots and trabecular bone mineral density of L4 were assessed using quantitative computed tomography. “Using MR spectroscopy was a new thing that we did in this study. MR spectroscopy is a technique that is more sophisticated than the regular bone density test. It does not involve radiation,” Dr. Bredella explained. “With this test, we could actually look inside the bones and see how much fat was in the bones.”
These examinations revealed an inverse association between visceral fat and bone mineral density (r = –0.31; P = .03) and between vertebral bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (r = –0.45; P = .001). The researchers also found that there was a positive correlation between bone marrow fat and visceral fat (r =.28; P = .04) that was independent of bone mineral density.
However, there was no significant correlation between either subcutaneous fat or total fat and bone marrow fat or bone mineral density. “The more deep belly fat you have, the more fat you have in your bones, and the more fat you have in the bones, the weaker they will be,” Dr. Bredella said. “All things being equal, if you have 2 obese women and one has a lot of deep belly fat and the other one has exactly the same weight but her fat is distributed more superficially around the hips and thighs, then the woman with the deep belly fat will have weaker bones.”
She suggested that belly fat weakens bones because this type of fat secretes adipokines, which weaken bones. “It is important for people to be aware that obesity is a risk factor for more than diabetes and cardiovascular disease,” she said. “Now they need to know that excess belly fat is a risk factor for bone loss.”
Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) 96th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting: Abstract SSJ17-05. Presented November 30, 2010.
Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine determined that excess abdominal fat places otherwise healthy, middle-aged people at risk for dementia later in life. Preliminary findings suggest a relationship between obesity and dementia that could lead to promising prevention strategies in the future. Results of this study are published early online in Annals of Neurology, a journal of the American Neurological Association.
A 2005 World Health Organization (WHO) report estimated that 24.3 million people have some form of dementia, with 4.6 million new cases annually. Individuals with dementia exhibit a decline in short-term and long-term memory, language processing, problem solving capabilities, and other cognitive function. Clinical diagnosis of dementia is made when two or more brain functions are significantly impaired. Symptoms of dementia can be attributed to irreversible causes such Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and Huntington's disease, or caused by treatable conditions such as brain tumor, medication reaction, or metabolic issues.
For the current study, Sudha Seshadri, M.D. and colleagues recruited participants from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort. The sample included 733 community participants who had a mean age of 60 years with roughly 70% of the study group comprised of women. Researchers examined the association between Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, CT-based measures of abdominal fat, with MRI measures of total brain volume (TCBV), temporal horn volume (THV), white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) and brain infarcts in the middle-aged participants.
“Our results confirm the inverse association of increasing BMI with lower brain volumes in older adults and with younger, middle-aged adults and extends the findings to a much larger study sample,” noted Dr. Seshadri. Prior studies were conducted in cohorts with less than 300 participants and the current study includes over 700 individuals.
“More importantly our data suggests a stronger connection between central obesity, particularly the visceral fat component of abdominal obesity, and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease,” Dr. Seshadri added. The research showed the association between VAT and TCBV was most robust and was also independent of BMI and insulin resistance. Researchers did not observe a statistically significant correlation between CT-based abdominal fat measures and THV, WMHV or BI.
“Our findings, while preliminary, provide greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the link between obesity and dementia,” concluded Dr. Seshadri. “Further studies will add to our knowledge and offer important methods of prevention.”
Source: Stéphanie Debette, Alexa Beiser, Udo Hoffmann, Charles DeCarli, Christopher J. O'Donnell, Joseph M. Massaro, Rhoda Au, Jayandra J. Himali, Philip A. Wolf, Caroline S. Fox, Sudha Seshadri. Visceral Fat is Associated with Lower Brain Volume in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults. Annals of Neurology, 2010